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Water: Habitat Protection

Corals and Reefs: Featured Documents

Charting a Course Toward Diagnostic Monitoring of Coral Reefs
This paper continues the review of coral reef attributes and presents a research strategy for creating coral reef indexes of biotic integrity (IBI's) that, once developed, can be used in coral reef biocriteria programs around the world.

U.S. Coral Reef Task Force
EPA is an active participant in the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force, established by an Executive Order on Coral Reef Protection issued by President Clinton on June 11, 1998 during the National Ocean Conference in Monteray, California. EPA is the lead federal agency for developing water and air quality related recommendations to the Task Force. You will find the report of this working group and the other four working groups, as well as the Task Forces' final action plan at http://www.coralreef.gov/. Exit EPA Disclaimer

Development of Biological Criteria for Coral Reef Ecosystem Assessment
Stephen C. Jameson, Mark V. Erdmann, George R. Gibson, Jr. and Kennard W. Potts, 1998

Coral Reef Guidance
This guidance was prepared jointly by the U.S. EPA and the Army Corps of Engineers to emphasize the protection afforded the Nation's valuable coral reef ecosystems under the Clean Water Act (CWA) Section 404 regulatory program, the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) Sections 102 and 103 provisions, Rivers and Harbors Act (RHA) Section 10 requirements, and Federal Projects conducted by the Corps.

Assessment of Coral Loss, Post Hurricane Georges at Selected Florida Keys Reefs <broken link> Exit EPA Disclaimer Florida Marine Research Institute

Coral Species Considered for Candidate Species List Exit EPA Disclaimer
In the January 15, 1999 Federal Register, the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Exit EPA Disclaimer solicited information on marine and anadromous species that may qualify as candidates for possible addition to the List of Endangered and Threatened Species, including information on the status of species currently classified as candidate species. Two species of coral are among the species NMFS is considering adding to the candidate species list. This notice is not a proposal for listing; candidate species do not receive substantive or procedural protection under the Endangered Species Act. The goal of the candidate species program is to identify marine and anadromous species as candidates for possible addition to the List of Endangered and Threatened Species and encourage voluntary efforts to help prevent listings.

New Navigation System to Protect Keys Coral Reefs Exit EPA Disclaimer
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the Coast Guard announced on December 7, 1998 that state-of-the-art navigational aids have been installed in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary to help ships avoid grounding on fragile, threatened coral reefs.

U.S. and Australia Collaborate on Early Warning of Coral Bleaching Exit EPA Disclaimer
The National Oceanic and Atmopheric Administration (NOAA) announced on March 5, 1999 that NOAA scientists are working with two Australian groups to improve coral reef monitoring and help promote early warnings of future bleaching events. The scientists are making extensive use of satellites and computerized expert systems.

Nations Express Concern About Coral Bleaching Exit EPA Disclaimer
The National Oceanic and Atmopheric Administration announced on December 2, 1998 that an international team of coral reef experts reported that high sea surface temperatures in 1998 affected almost all species of corals, leading to unprecedented global coral bleaching and mortality. The group of experts, attending the International Tropical Marine Ecosystems Management Symposium conference in Townsville, Queensville, at Australia's Great Barrier Reef, also reported that associated reef invertebrates have been affected by warmer sea temperatures.

Extensive Coral Bleaching in 1998 Exit EPA Disclaimer
The National Oceanic and Atmopheric Administration announced on October 15, 1998 that record-breaking amounts of coral bleaching occurred during 1998 in the tropics. Coral bleaching can be a sign that the coral is being stressed by a number of factors, including pollution, sedimentation, changes in salinity, and increases in water temperature. Warm sea surface temperatures due to El Niño and global warming may be partly to blame.

Coral reefs: Are we doing too little too late? Exit EPA Disclaimer
CNN article, October 22, 1998

Second Meeting of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force
March 6, 1999, Maui, Hawaii

First Meeting of the U.S. Coral Reef Task Force
October 19-20, 1998, Biscayne National Park in Florida

Coral Reefs and Your Coastal Watershed
One of a series of five 1998 EPA factsheets on coastal watersheds. Other factsheets in the series focus on beachers, near coastal waters, and estuaries.

For additional information contact:
Office of Wetlands, Oceans and Watersheds
Ocean and Coastal Protection Division
Mail Code 4504T
1200 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
Washington, DC 20460

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