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Water: Microbial

Thesaurus of Terms Used in Microbial Risk Assessment: 5.2  Problem Formulation Terms

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planning and scoping

The process of determining the purpose, scope, players, expected outcomes, analytical approach, schedule, deliverables, QA/QC, resources, and document requirements for the risk assessment.  (EPA 2004)
RELATED TERMS: problem formulation


Money, time, equipment, and personnel available to perform the assessment.  (EPA 2004)
Note: environmental resources may also be considered such  as air, water, soil, minerals, etc. and are important factos in defining the media of concern with respect to human exposure to microorganisms.

A construct characterizing the likely pathway affecting the safety of the food product.  This may include consideration of processing, inspection, storage, distribution ,and consumer practices.  Probability and severity values are applied to each scenario.  (FAO/WHO 1995)

scenario uncertainty

Uncertainty due to descriptive errors, aggregation errors, errors in professional judgment, or incomplete analysis.  (EPA 2004)

screening-level risk assessment

A risk assessment performed with few data and many conservative assumptions to identify exposures that should be evaluated more carefully for potential risk.  (EPA 2004, 2005b)

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screening method

This method is intended to provide conservative overestimates of exposure and risk using relatively simple and quick calculation methods and with relatively low data input requirements.  The purpose of such methods, models or techniques is to eliminate the need for further, more detailed modeling for scenarios that do not cause or contribute to high enough levels of exposure or risk to be of potential concern.  If a screening method indicates that levels of exposure or risk are low, then there should be high confidence that actual exposures or risk levels are low.  Conversely, if a screening method indicates that estimated exposure or risk levels are high, then a more refined method should be applied since the screening method is intentionally biased.  (FAO/WHO 2003b)
RELATED TERMS: refined method

systematic review

A form of structure literature review that addresses a question that is formulated to be answered by analysis of evidence, and involves objective means of searching the literature, applying predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria to this literature, critically appraising the relevant literature, and extraction and synthesis of data from evidence base to formulate findings.  (NLM/NICHSR 2004)
RELATED TERMS: meta-analysis

time profile

A continuous record of instantaneous values over a time period (e.g., exposure, dose, medium intake rate).  (IPCS 2004)

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