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Water: Copper

2007 Updated Aquatic Life Copper Criteria

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Biotic Ligand Model (BLM)

Metal bioavailability and toxicity have long been recognized to be a function of water chemistry. The Biotic Ligand Model was developed to incorporate metal speciation and the protective effects of competing cations into predictions of metal bioavailability and toxicity.

Additional information, including support details, can be found online at http://www.hydroqual.com/blm Exit EPA Disclaimer .

We issued a revised national recommended freshwater aquatic life criterion for copper. As a companion to the criteria document, we've also released documents to supplement training materials and help states, tribes, permittees, and other interested stakeholders on implementing the nationally recommended criteria.

  • Fact Sheet
  • Federal Register Notice (February 22, 2007) | Print Version (PDF) (3 pp, 88K)
  • Complete Criteria Document (tables and appendices included) (PDF) (204 pp, 910K)
  • Tables
    • Table 1. Acute Toxicity of Copper to Freshwater Animals
    • Table 2a. Chronic Toxicity of Copper to Freshwater Animals
    • Table 2b. Chronic Toxicity of Copper to Saltwater Animals
    • Table 2c. Acute-Chronic Ratios
    • Table 3a. Ranked Freshwater Genus Mean Acute Values with Species Mean Acute-Chronic Ratios
    • Table 3b. Freshwater Final Acute Value (FAV) and Criteria Calculations
    • Table 4. Toxicity of Copper to Freshwater Plants
  • Appendices
    • Appendix A: Ranges in Calibration and Application Data Sets
    • Appendix B: Other Data on Effects of Copper on Freshwater Organisms
    • Appendix C: Estimation of Water Chemistry Parameters for Acute Copper Toxicity Tests
    • Appendix D: Saltwater Conversion Factors for Dissolved Values
    • Appendix E: BLM Table
    • Appendix F: Analyses of Chronic Data
    • Appendix G: Representative water quality criteria values using the BLM and the Hardness Equation
    • Appendix H:. Unused Data

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