Water: Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments
B. Management Measure for Bridges
Site, design, and maintain bridge structures so that sensitive and valuable aquatic ecosystems and areas providing important water quality benefits are protected from adverse effects.
This management measure is intended to be applied by States to new, relocated, and rehabilitated bridge structures in order to control erosion, streambed scouring, and surface runoff from such activities. Under the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990, States are subject to a number of requirements as they develop coastal NPS programs in conformity with this management measure and will have some flexibility in doing so. The application of management measures by States is described more fully in Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program: Program Development and Approval Guidance, published jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
This measure requires that NPS runoff impacts on surface waters from bridge decks be assessed and that appropriate management and treatment be employed to protect critical habitats, wetlands, fisheries, shellfish beds, and domestic water supplies. The siting of bridges should be a coordinated effort among the States, the FHWA, the U.S. Coast Guard, and the Army Corps of Engineers. Locating bridges in coastal areas can cause significant erosion and sedimentation, resulting in the loss of wetlands and riparian areas. Additionally, since bridge pavements are extensions of the connecting highway, runoff waters from bridge decks also deliver loadings of heavy metals, hydrocarbons, toxic substances, and deicing chemicals to surface waters as a result of discharge through scupper drains with no overland buffering. Bridge maintenance can also contribute heavy loads of lead, rust particles, paint, abrasive, solvents, and cleaners into surface waters. Protection against possible pollutant overloads can be afforded by minimizing the use of scuppers on bridges traversing very sensitive waters and conveying deck drainage to land for treatment. Whenever practical, bridge structures should be located to avoid crossing over sensitive fisheries and shellfish-harvesting areas to prevent washing polluted runoff through scuppers into the waters below. Also, bridge design should account for potential scour and erosion, which may affect shellfish beds and bottom sediments.
3. Management Measure Selection
This management measure was selected because of its documented effectiveness and to protect against potential pollution impacts from siting bridges over sensitive waters and tributaries in the coastal zone. There are several examples of siting bridges to protect sensitive areas. The Isle of Palms Bridge near Charleston, South Carolina, was designed without scupper drains to protect a local fishery from polluted runoff by preventing direct discharge into the waters below. In another example, the Louisiana Department of Transportation and Development specified stringent requirements before allowing the construction of a bridge to protect destruction of fragile wetlands near New Orleans. A similar requirement was specified for bridge construction in the Tampa Bay area in Florida (ENR, 1991).
As discussed more fully at the beginning of this chapter and in Chapter 1, the following practices are described for illustrative purposes only. State programs need not require implementation of these practices. However, as a practical matter, EPA anticipates that the management measure set forth above generally will be implemented by applying one or more management practices appropriate to the source, location, and climate. The practices set forth below have been found by EPA to be representative of the types of practices that can be applied successfully to achieve the management measure described above.
Additional erosion and sediment control management practices are listed in the construction section for urban sources of pollution (Management Measure IV.A).
- a. Coordinate design with FHWA, USCG, COE, and other State and Federal agencies as appropriate.
- b. Review National Environmental Policy Act requirements to ensure that environmental concerns are met (FHWA, T6640.8A and 23 CFR 771).
- c. Avoid highway locations requiring numerous river crossings. (AASHTO, 1991)
- d. Direct pollutant loadings away from bridge decks by diverting runoff waters to land for treatment.
Bridge decks should be designed to keep runoff velocities low and control pollutant loadings. Runoff waters should be conveyed away from contact with the watercourse and directed to a stable storm drainage, wetland, or detention pond. Conveyance systems should be designed to withstand the velocities of projected peak discharge.
- e. Restrict the use of scupper drains on bridges less than 400 feet in length and on bridges crossing very sensitive ecosystems.
Scupper drains allow direct discharge of runoff into surface waters below the bridge deck. Such discharges can be of concern where the waterbody is highly susceptible to degradation or is an outstanding resource such as a spawning area or shellfish bed. Other sensitive waters include water supply sources, recreational waters, and irrigation systems. Care should be taken to protect these areas from contaminated runoff.
- f. Site and design new bridges to avoid sensitive ecosystems.
Pristine waters and sensitive ecosystems should be protected from degradation as much as possible. Bridge structures should be located in alternative areas where only minimal environmental damage would result.
- g. On bridges with scupper drains, provide equivalent urban runoff treatment in terms of pollutant load reduction elsewhere on the project to compensate for the loading discharged off the bridge.
5. Effectiveness Information and Cost Information
Effectively controlling NPS pollutants such as road contaminants, fugitive dirt, and debris and preventing accidental spills from entering surface waters via bridge decks are necessary to protect wetlands and other sensitive ecosystems. Therefore, management practices such as minimizing the use of scupper drains and diverting runoff waters to land for treatment in detention ponds and infiltration systems are known to be effective in mitigating pollutant loadings. Tables 4-7 (34k) and 4-8 in Section II provide cost and effectiveness data for ponds, constructed wetlands, and filtration devices.