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Water: Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments

Management Measures for Forestry - III. Glossary

Access road: A temporary or permanent road over which timber is transported from a loading site to a public road. Also known as a haul road.

Alignment: The horizontal route or direction of an access road.

Allochthonous: Derived from outside a system, such as leaves of terrestrial plants that fall into a stream.

Angle of repose: The maximum slope or angle at which a material, such as soil or loose rock, remains stable (stable angle).

Apron: Erosion protection placed below the streambed in an area of high flow velocity, such as downstream from a culvert.

Autochthonous: Derived from within a system, such as organic matter in a stream resulting from photosynthesis by aquatic plants.

Bedding: A site preparation technique whereby a small ridge of surface soil is formed to provide an elevated planting or seed bed. It is used primarily in wet areas to improve drainage and aeration for seeding.

Berm: A low earth fill constructed in the path of flowing water to divert its direction, or constructed to act as a counterweight beside the road fill to reduce the risk of foundation failure (buttress).

Borrow pit: An excavation site outside the limits of construction that provides necessary material, such as fill material for embankments.

Broad-based dip: A surface drainage structure specifically designed to drain water from an access road while vehicles maintain normal travel speeds.

Brush barrier: A sediment control structure created of slash materials piled at the toe slope of a road or at the outlets of culverts, turnouts, dips, and water bars.

Buck: To saw felled trees into predetermined lengths.

Buffer area: A designated area around a stream or waterbody of sufficient width to minimize entrance of forestry chemicals (fertilizers, pesticides, and fire retardants) into the waterbody.

Cable logging: A system of transporting logs from stump to landing by means of steel cables and winch. This method is usually preferred on steep slopes, wet areas, and erodible soils where tractor logging cannot be carried out effectively.

Check dam: A small dam constructed in a gully to decrease the flow velocity, minimize channel scour, and promote deposition of sediment.

Chopping: A mechanical treatment whereby vegetation is concentrated near the ground and incorporated into the soil to facilitate burning or seedling establishment.

Clearcutting: A silvicultural system in which all merchantable trees are harvested within a specified area in one operation to create an even-aged stand.

Contour: An imaginary line on the surface of the earth connecting points of the same elevation. A line drawn on a map connecting the points of the same elevation.

Crown: A convex road surface that allows runoff to drain to either side of the road prism.

Culvert: A metal, wooden, plastic, or concrete conduit through which surface water can flow under or across roads.

Cumulative effect: The impact on the environment that results from the incremental impact of an action when added to other past, present, and reasonably foreseeable future actions regardless of what agency or person undertakes such action.

Cut-and-fill: Earth-moving process that entails excavating part of an area and using the excavated material for adjacent embankments or fill areas.

DBH: Diameter at breast height; the average diameter (outside the bark) of a tree 4.5 feet above mean ground level.

Disking (harrowing): A mechanical method of scarifying the soil to reduce competing vegetation and to prepare a site to be seeded or planted.

Diversion: A channel with a supporting ridge on the lower side constructed across or at the bottom of a slope for the purpose of intercepting surface runoff.

Drainage structure: Any device or land form constructed to intercept and/or aid surface water drainage.

Duff: The accumulation of needles, leaves, and decaying matter on the forest floor.

Ephemeral stream: A channel that carries water only during and immediately following rainstorms. Sometimes referred to as a dry wash.

Felling: The process of cutting down standing trees.

Fill slope: The surface formed where earth is deposited to build a road or trail.

Firebreak: Naturally occurring or man-made barrier to the spread of fire.

Fireline: A barrier used to stop the spread of fire constructed by removing fuel or rendering fuel inflammable by use of fire retardants.

Ford: Submerged stream crossing where tread is reinforced to bear intended traffic.

Forest filter strip: Area between a stream and construction activities that achieves sediment control by using the natural filtering capabilities of the forest floor and litter.

Forwarding: The operation of moving timber products from the stump to a landing for further transport.

Geotextile: A product used as a soil reinforcement agent and as a filter medium. It is made of synthetic fibers manufactured in a woven or loose nonwoven manner to form a blanket-like product.

Grade (gradient): The slope of a road or trail expressed as a percentage of change in elevation per unit of distance traveled.

Harvesting: The felling, skidding, processing, loading, and transporting of forest products.

Haul road: See access road.

Intermittent stream: A watercourse that flows in a well-defined channel only in direct response to a precipitation event. It is dry for a large part of the year.

Landing (log deck): A place in or near the forest where logs are gathered for further processing or transport.

Leaching: Downward movement of a soluble material through the soil as a result of water movement.

Logging debris (slash): The unwanted, unutilized, and generally unmerchantable accumulation of woody material, such as large limbs, tops, cull logs, and stumps, that remains as forest residue after timber harvesting.

Merchantable: Forest products suitable for marketing under local economic conditions. With respect to a single tree, it means the parts of the bole or stem suitable for sale.

Mineral soil: Organic-free soil that contains rock less than 2 inches in maximum dimension.

Mulch: A natural or artificial layer of plant residue or other materials covering the land surface that conserves moisture, holds soil in place, aids in establishing plant cover, and minimizes temperature fluctuations.

Mulching: Providing any loose covering for exposed forest soils, such as grass, straw, bark, or wood fibers, to help control erosion and protect exposed soil.

Muskeg: A type of bog that has developed over thousands of years in depressions, on flat areas, and on gentle to steep slopes. These bogs have poorly drained, acidic, organic soils supporting vegetation that can be (1) predominantly sphagnum moss; (2) herbaceous plants, sedges, and rushes; (3) predominantly sedges and rushes; or (4) a combination of sphagnum moss and herbaceous plants. These bogs may have some shrub and stunted conifers, but not enough to classify them as forested lands.

Ordinary high water mark: An elevation that marks the boundary of a lake, marsh, or streambed. It is the highest level at which the water has remained long enough to leave its mark on the landscape. Typically, it is the point where the natural vegetation changes from predominantly aquatic to predominantly terrestrial.

Organic debris: Particles of vegetation or other biological material that can degrade water quality by decreasing dissolved oxygen and by releasing organic solutes during leaching.

Outslope: To shape the road surface to cause drainage to flow toward the outside shoulder.

Patch cutting method: A silvicultural system in which all merchantable trees are harvested over a specified area at one time.

Perennial stream: A watercourse that flows throughout a majority of the year in a well-defined channel.

Persistence: The relative ability of a pesticide to remain active over a period of time.

Pioneer roads: Temporary access ways used to facilitate construction equipment access when building permanent roads.

Prescribed burning: Skillful application of fire to natural fuels that allows confinement of the fire to a predetermined area and at the same time produces certain planned benefits.

Raking: A mechanical method of removing stumps, roots, and slash from a future planting site.

Regeneration: The process of replacing older trees removed by harvest or disaster with young trees.

Residual trees: Live trees left standing after the completion of harvesting.

Right-of-way: The cleared area along the road alignment that contains the roadbed, ditches, road slopes, and back slopes.

Riprap: Rock or other large aggregate that is placed to protect streambanks, bridge abutments, or other erodible sites from runoff or wave action.

Rut: A depression in access roads made by continuous passage of logging vehicles.

Salvage harvest: Removal of trees that are dead, damaged, or imminently threatened with death or damage in order to use the wood before it is rendered valueless by natural decay agents.

Sanitation harvest: Removal of trees that are under attack by or highly susceptible to insect and disease agents in order to check the spread of such agents.

Scarification: The process of removing the forest floor or mixing it with the mineral soil by mechanical action preparatory to natural or direct seeding or the planting of tree seedlings.

Scour: Soil erosion when it occurs underwater, as in the case of a streambed.

Seed bed: The soil prepared by natural or artificial means to promote the germination of seeds and the growth of seedlings.

Seed tree method: Removal of the mature timber in one cutting, except for a limited number of seed trees left singly or in small groups.

Selection method: An uneven-aged silvicultural system in which mature trees are removed, individually or in small groups, from a given tract of forestland over regular intervals of time.

Shearing: A site preparation method that involves the cutting of brush, trees, or other vegetation at ground level using tractors equipped with angles or V-shaped cutting blades.

Shelterwood method: Removal of the mature timber in a series of cuttings that extend over a relatively short portion of the rotation in order to encourage the establishment of essentially even-aged reproduction under the partial shelter of seed trees.

Silt fence: A temporary barrier used to intercept sediment-laden runoff from small areas.

Silvicultural system: A process, following accepted silvicultural principles, whereby the tree species constituting forests are tended, harvested, and replaced. Usually defined by, but not limited to, the method of regeneration.

Site preparation: A silvicultural activity to remove unwanted vegetation and other material, and to cultivate or prepare the soil for regeneration.

Skid: Short-distance moving of logs or felled trees from the stump to a point of loading.

Skid trail: A temporary, nonstructural pathway over forest soil used to drag felled trees or logs to the landing.

Slash: See logging debris.

Slope: Degree of deviation of a surface from the horizontal, measured as a numerical ratio, as a percent, or in degrees. Expressed as a ratio, the first number is the horizontal distance (run) and the second number is the vertical distance (rise), as 2:1. A 2:1 slope is a 50 percent slope. Expressed in degrees, the slope is the angle from the horizontal plane, with a 90 degree slope being vertical (maximum) and a 45 degree slope being a 1:1 slope.

Stand: A contiguous group of trees sufficiently uniform in species composition, arrangement of age classes, and condition to be a homogeneous and distinguishable unit.

Streamside management area (SMA): A designated area that consists of the stream itself and an adjacent area of varying width where management practices that might affect water quality, fish, or other aquatic resources are modified. The SMA is not an area of exclusion, but an area of closely managed activity. It is an area that acts as an effective filter and absorptive zone for sediments; maintains shade; protects aquatic and terrestrial riparian habitats; protects channels and streambanks; and promotes floodplain stability.

Tread: Load-bearing surface of a trail or road.

Turnout: A drainage ditch that drains water away from roads and road ditches.

Water bar: A diversion ditch and/or hump installed across a trail or road to divert runoff from the surface before the flow gains enough volume and velocity to cause soil movement and erosion, and deposit the runoff into a dispersion area. Water bars are most frequently used on retired roads, trails, and landings.

Watercourse: A definite channel with bed and banks within which concentrated water flows continuously, frequently or infrequently.

Windrow: Logging debris and unmerchantable woody vegetation that has been piled in rows to decompose or to be burned; or the act of constructing these piles.

Yarding: Method of transport from harvest area to storage landing.

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