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Water: Animal Feeding Operations

Implementation Information



Nebraska Nutrient Management Recordkeeping Calendar (PDF) (48 pp, 8.10K, About PDF) - EPA is providing this recordkeeping calendar from the University of Nebraska Extension as an example of a format for maintaining nutrient management planning records. EPA thanks Nebraska Extension, Leslie Johnson, and Purdue University for permission to include this calendar on EPA's AFO website. Many State extension services offer comparable recordkeeping aides.


Technical Manual for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations - Provides information to states, producers, and the general public including: 1) general information on Clean Water Act and NPDES requirements for CAFOs, 2) information to explain CAFO permitting requirements under the CWA, and 3) technical information to help states and producers understand options for nutrient management planning.

It is EPA's intent that this is a living document that will be updated periodically to incorporate new and emerging approaches to CAFO management, including those focused on manure reuse and recycling and use for energy generation. Interested parties are encouraged to bring to EPA's attention questions and suggestions concerning the content of this manual at any time. EPA will consider this input and update this document periodically to ensure that this manual is as helpful as possible. Please send questions and suggestions to Shanika Whitehurst via e-mail at whitehurst.shanika@epa.gov or by phone at (202) 564-8235.

Implementation Guidance on CAFO Regulations - CAFOs That Discharge or Are Proposing to Discharge (18 pp, 2.05MB, About PDF) - EPA is in the process of revising this guidance to address National Pork Producers Council et al v. EPA, 635 F.3d 738 (EPA-833-R-10-006).

Producers' Compliance Guide for CAFOs - Describes EPA's 2003 regulations for concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). The Producers' Guide (69 pp, 1.01MB, About PDF) includes sections that describe EPA's 2003 CAFO regulations, who they affect, what they require, and what assistance is available.

NOTE: This document has not been updated to reflect the 2008 revisions to the final CAFO regulations. Portions of this document describing rule provisions that were not revised in 2008 are still relevant. EPA plans to update this document to reflect the current regulatory requirements.

Revised: Managing Manure Guidance for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) - Technical guidance designed to supplement the NPDES Permit Writers' Guidance Manual and Example NPDES Permit for Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations. This guidance provides additional technical information for owners, operators, technical service providers, consultants, and permit authorities on how to carry out EPA's 2003 regulatory requirements for NPDES permitting of CAFOs. It also provides information on voluntary technologies and management practices that may both improve the production efficiency of CAFOs and further protect the quality of the nation's waters. This document assumes that readers have a basic understanding of the CAFO regulations (EPA-821-B-04-009).

NOTE: This document has not been updated to reflect the 2008 revisions to the final CAFO regulations. Portions of this document describing rule provisions that were not revised in 2008 are still relevant. EPA plans to update this document to reflect the current regulatory requirements.


Technical Assistance Cooperative Agreement - Comprehensive Livestock Environmental Assessments and Nutrient Management Plans: In 2007, EPA awarded two cooperative agreements to develop nutrient management plans (NMPs) and conduct environmental assessments (EAs) at no cost to livestock operators.  The cooperative agreements, totaling $7.9 million, were awarded to RTI International (RTI) of Research Triangle Park, NC, and Environmental Resources Consortium (ERC) of Jefferson City, MO.

The funding recipients provided livestock operations with two types of technical assistance at no cost: (1) comprehensive EAs of water and air quality challenges and recommendations for strategies to mitigate those challenges; and (2) development or review of NMPs, which specify the amount of manure that can be applied to crops so the potential for runoff to waterbodies is minimized.

As of December 31, 2012, RTI completed its project, serving 429 farm participants.  For those participants, 297 EAs and 393 NMPs were delivered as some farm participants requested both an EA and an NMP.  ERC is working to complete the project, currently serving 486 farm participants and completing 382 NMPs and 113 EAs.  All information obtained during these projects is confidential.

The technical assistance was available to any livestock operation in the United States. For more information, please contact Becky Mitschele (mitschele.becky@epa.gov).

Note: These two projects are not accepting new applications.

RTI’s CLEANeast™project Exit EPA Site - For livestock operations in the eastern U.S. (i.e., east of the Mississippi River)

ERC’s CLEANmp project Exit EPA Site - For livestock operations in the western U.S. (i.e., west of the Mississippi River)

Assistance Program SummariesFinancial Assistance Summaries for AFOs (48 pp, 179K, About PDF):  A reference source for owners and operators of animal feeding operations (AFOs) and concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to learn about the federal financial and technical assistance programs available to address environmental concerns.

Polluted Runoff (Nonpoint Source Pollution) Funding Opportunities - Watershed Funding: The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has created this website to provide tools, databases, and information about sources of funding to practitioners and funders that serve to protect watersheds.

USDA, NRCS, Agricultural Management Assistance (AMA) Program - AMA Exit EPA Site provides financial and technical assistance to agricultural producers to voluntarily address issues such as water management, water quality, and erosion control by incorporating conservation into their farming operations.

Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) - The USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service's Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP) was established to provide a voluntary conservation program for farmers and ranchers to address significant natural resource needs and objectives.


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