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Water: Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water Treatment Rule

Low-Pressure Membrane Filtration for Pathogen Removal: Application, Implementation and Regulatory Issues

 Low-Pressure Membrane Filtration for Pathogen Removal: Application, Implementation and Regulatory Issues

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Microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) are low-pressure membrane filtration processes that have gained considerable acceptance in the drinking water industry over the past ten years. MF and UF are primarily used for particle removal as stand-alone treatment, retrofit of existing conventional treatment plants (as a replacement for conventional particle removal processes), or as pretreatment to advanced processes such as nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO). MF and UF have been demonstrated to be capable of removing protozoa cysts to below detection, as well as meeting the turbidity requirements of surface water treatment regulations.

The primary objective of this report is to summarize the current use and status of membrane filtration technologies for drinking water applications as well as the regulatory requirements that govern this technology. Specifically, the report includes the following information:

  • A summary of surface water treatment regulations
  • An overview of membrane filtration technology
  • A literature review summarizing the results of microbial challenge studies
  • A detailed description of commonly applied, membrane integrity monitoring techniques
  • A discussion of the relationship between membrane integrity and microbial risk
  • A summary of state regulatory requirements for membrane filtration applied for pathogen removal
  • A summary of treatment practices for operating membrane filtration facilities

Low-Pressure Membrane Filtration for Pathogen Removal: Application, Implementation, and Regulatory Issues (1037 K PDF FILE, 148 pgs) (ALL ABOUT PDF FILES)
EPA 815-C-01-001 April 2001

The document is also available on CD-ROM from NCEPI and can be ordered by going to www.epa.gov/ncepihom/ordering.htm.


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