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Water: Total Maximum Daily Loads (303d)

Appendix A - Relationship To Other Guidance


Guidance for Water Quality-Based Decisions:
The TMDL Process

Monitoring Guidance

The Clean Water Act specifies that States and Interstate Agencies, in cooperation with EPA, establish water quality monitoring systems necessary to review and revise water quality standards, calculate TMDLs, assess compliance with permits, and report on conditions and trends in ambient waters. EPA's current program guidance 21 discusses the programmatic relationships of monitoring as an information collection tool for many program needs. NPS pollution concerns are discussed in draft guidance along with some means to monitor and evaluate NPSs. 22 Revised Monitoring Program Guidance is planned for FY 1991.

Cooperative Monitoring/Citizen Volunteer Monitoring Guidance

Cooperative monitoring involves shared efforts by individuals or groups in assessing water quality conditions. Cooperative arrangements are encouraged by the Clean Water Act as referenced in section 104. Cooperative monitoring projects require careful planning and strong management controls. Current guidance 23 24 describes the factors to be considered in designing and implementing cooperative and volunteer monitoring projects so that specific provisions are made for the collection and analysis of scientifically valid water quality data, and so that the State water pollution control agencies have the necessary information for final review and approval of all projects.

Cooperative monitoring projects can serve the same usefulness as other monitoring studies; however, they also provide a mechanism to maximize limited resources. In addition to "tapping" additional resources for monitoring, there are other incentives for States and the regulated community to cooperate, such as having more site-specific data from which to develop site-specific, scientifically-based water quality criteria.

Citizen volunteer monitoring involves identifying sources of pollution, tracking the progress of protection and restoration projects, and/or reporting special events such as fish kills and storm damage. For more information on citizen monitoring programs, contact the EPA Office of Water Regulations and Standards (OWRS), Monitoring Branch at 202/382-7056.

Wasteload Allocation Technical Guidance

Technical guidance manuals prepared by EPA explain how to prepare wasteload allocations (WLAs). These manuals are listed at the right. Those available can be obtained from the OWRS Monitoring Branch at 202/382-7056.

Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control

The Technical Support Document (TSD) for Water Quality-based Toxics Control 25 presents recommendations to regulatory authorities when they are faced with the task of controlling the discharge of toxic pollutants to the nation's waters. Included in this document are detailed discussions on EPA's recommended criteria for whole effluent toxicity, a screening analysis methodology for effluent characterization, human health risk assessment, the use of exposure assessments for wasteload allocations, and the development of permit requirements and compliance monitoring. The TSD provides guidance for assessing and regulating the discharge of toxic substances. It supports EPA's initiative to control toxic pollution by involving the application of biological and chemical assessment techniques and proposes solutions to complex and site-specific pollution problems. Information on this document can be obtained from EPA's Water Quality and Industrial Permits Branch at 202/475-9537.

Technical Guidance Manuals for
Performing Wasteload Allocations
Book Title
I.General Guidance  
II.Streams and Rivers
  • Biochemical Oxygen Demand/Dissolved Oxygen
  • Nutrient/Eutrophication
  • Toxic Substances
  • Simplified Analytical Method for Determining NPDES Effluent Limitations for POTWs Discharging into Low-Flow Streams
III.Estuaries
  • Estuaries and Wasteload Allocation Models
  • Application of Estuarine Waste Load Allocation Models
  • Use of Mixing Zone Models in Estuarine Waste Load Allocations*
  • Critical Review of Estuarine Waste Load Allocation Modeling*
IV.Lakes and Impoundments
  • Biochemical Oxygen Demand/Dissolved Oxygen
  • Nutrient/Eutrophication
  • Toxic Substances
V.Technical Support Document for Water Quality-Base Toxics Control  
VI.Design Conditions
  • Design Flow
  • Design Temperature, pH, Hardness, and Alkalinity
VII.Permit Averaging  
VIII.Screening Manual
  • Biochemical Oxygen Demand/Dissolved Oxygen
  • Toxic Organics
  • Toxic Metals
  • Nutrients/Eutrophication
IX.Innovative Wasteload Allocations*  

* not yet available


Permit Writers Guidance

The Permit Writer's Guide to Water Quality-based Permitting For Toxic Pollutants26 provides State and Federal NPDES permit writers and water quality management staff with a reference on water quality-based permit issuance procedures. This guidance presents fundamental concepts and procedures in detail and refers to more advanced toxics control procedures, such as dynamic modeling of complex discharge situations, which may not yet be incorporated into many State programs. The guidance explains aspects of water quality-based toxics control in terms of what a permit writer currently needs to know to issue a water quality-based toxics control NPDES permit.

The NPDES permits program is now focused on control of toxic pollutants and the guidance document is directed at supporting these control efforts. Water quality problems related to conventional pollutants, such as those associated with point source contributions to oxygen depletion, are addressed in other guidance documents.

The Permit Writer's guide addresses three areas of toxic effects: aquatic life, human health, and the bioaccumulation of specific chemicals. Each effect must be dealt with on an individual basis using available data and tools. This guidance also catalogues the principal procedures and tools available.

The guidance supports an integrated toxics control strategy using both whole effluent toxicity-based assessment procedures and pollutant-specific assessment procedures. Both procedures are needed to enforce State water quality standards.

Nonpoint Source Guidance

Section 319 of the Clean Water Act establishes direction and financial assistance for the implementation of State NPS programs. NPS guidance 27 encourages States to develop State Clean Water Strategies for integrating and unifying the States' approach to water quality protection and clean-up. Three steps are identified for this process: comprehensive assessment of impaired or threatened waters, targeted protection of waters, and development of strategic management plans. States are to develop NPS programs which build upon related programs (e.g., Clean Lakes, National Estuaries, Stormwater Permits, Ground Water, Toxics Controls, State Revolving Funds, and Wetlands) and to coordinate their efforts with other federal agencies.

The 1987 amendments to the CWA include provisions to encourage States to accelerate efforts to control nonpoint source pollution. The amendments require States to prepare a Nonpoint Source Assessment Report and a 4-year Management Program. Funds are provided to assist the States in implementing these programs. Information on this guidance can be obtained from EPA's Nonpoint Source Control Branch at 202/260-7085.


21.USEPA. 1985. Guidance for State Water Monitoring and Wasteload Allocation Programs. OW/OWRS, EPA 440/4-85-031. Washington, D.C.Back.

22.USEPA. 1987. Draft Nonpoint Source Monitoring and Evaluation Guide. OW/OWRS, EPA. Washington, D.C. Back.

23.USEPA. 1984. Planning and Managing Cooperative Monitoring Projects. OW/OWRS, EPA 440/4-84-018. Washington, D.C. Back.

24.USEPA. 1990. Volunteer Water Monitoring: A Guide for State Managers. OW, EPA 440/4-90-010. Washington, D.C. Back.

25.USEPA. 1985. Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control. OW/OWRS and OWEP, EPA 440/4-85 Washington, D.C. A revised draft (April 23, 1990) is available and will replace the 1985 Guidance once it is finalized .Back.

26.USEPA. 1987. Permit Writer's Guide to Water Quality-based Permitting for Toxic Pollutants. OW/OWEP, EPA 440/4-87-005. Washington, D.C .Back.

27.FUSEPA. 1987. Nonpoint Source Guidance. OW/OWRS, EPA. Washington, D.C.Back.




Table of Contents Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3
Chapter 4 Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C
apd ape apf apg
acro sections


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