Jump to main content or area navigation.

Contact Us

Water: Monitoring & Assessment

14.0 Literature Cited

Impacts on Quality of Inland Wetlands of the United States:
A Survey of Indicators, Techniques, and Applications of Community Level Biomonitoring Data
Excerpts from Report #EPA/600/3-90/073
(now out of print)

Abbruzzese, B., A.B. Allen, S. Henderson and M.E. Kentula. 1988. Selecting sites for comparison with created wetlands. pp. 291-297 In: C.D.A. Rubec and R.P. Overend (eds.). Proceedings of Symposium '87--wetlands/Peatlands, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1987.

Adamus, P.R. 1983. A Method for Wetland Functional Assessment, Volume II. FHWA Assessment Method. U.S. Dept. Trans., Federal Highway Admin. Rep. FHWA-IP-82-24. 134 pp.

Adamus, P.R. 1984. Techniques for Monitoring the Environmental Impact of Insecticides on Aquatic Ecosystems. Agric. Handbook No. 613, U.S. Forest Serv., Broomall, PA. 64 pp.

Adamus, P.R. (ed.). 1987. Atlas of Breeding Birds in Maine, 1978-1983. Maine Dept. Inland Fish. & Wildl., Augusta, ME. 366 pp.

Adamus, P.R. 1989. A Review of Technical Information Sources for Support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Advanced Identification (ADID) Projects. Environ. Res. Lab., Off. Res. and Dev., Corvallis, OR.

Adamus, P.R. 1989. Wetlands and Water Quality: EPA's Research and Monitoring Implementation Plan for the Years 1989-1994. US EPA Environmental Res. Lab., Off. Res. Dev., Corvallis, OR.

Adamus, P.R., E.J. Clairain, Jr., D.R. Smith, and R. E. Young. 1987. Wetland Evaluation Technique (WET). Volume II. Technical Rep. Y-87. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.

Adamus, P.R., R.D. Smith, and T.A. Muir. 1990. Manual for Assessment of Bottomland Hardwood Functions. USEPA Office of Wetlands Protection, Washington, D.C.

Agami, M., M. Litav, and Y. Waisel. 1976. The effects of various components of water pollution on the behavior of some aquatic macrophytes of the coastal rivers of Israel. Aquat. Bot. 2:203-213.

Aho, J.M. 1978. Freshwater snail populations and the equilibrium theory of island biogeography. II. Relative importance of chemical and spatial variables. Ann. Zool. Fenn. 15:155-164.

Aiken, R.B. 1979. A size selective underwater light trap. Hydrobiologia 65:65-68.

Albert, D.A., S.R. Crispin, G. Reese, L.A. Wilsmann, and S.J. Ouwilsmann. 1987. A Survey of Great Lakes Marshes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula. Michigan Nat. Features Inventory, Land & Water Manage. Div., Lansing, MI.

Alexander, T.R. and A.G. Crook. 1974. Recent vegetational changes in south Florida: present and past. Memoir 2, Miami Geol. Soc., Miami, FL.

Al-Ali, F.A., S.R.A. Shamsi, and S.M. Hussain. 1978. Sprouting and growth of purple nutsedge, Cyperus rotundus, in relation to pH and aeration. Physiol. Plant. 44:373-376.

Ali, A. and B.H. Stanley. 1982. Effects of a new carbamate insecticide, Larvin (VC-51762) on some non-target aquatic invertebrates. Florida Entomol. 65:477-483.

Allard, M. and G. Moreau. 1987. Effects of experimental acidification on a lotic macroinvertebrate community. Hydrobiologia 144:37-49.

Allen, E.D. and P.R. Gorham. 1973. Changes in the submerged macrophyte communities of Lake Wabamun as a result of thermal discharges. pp. 313-324 In: Proc. Sympos. Lakes of Western Canada. Water Resour. Center, Univ. Alberta , Edmonton.

Allinson, D.W. 1972. Influence of simazine on yield and quality components of reed canarygrass. Agron. J. 64:530-535.

Almazan, G. and C.E. Boyd. 1978. Effects of nitrogen levels on rates of oxygen consumption during decay of aquatic plants. Aquat. Bot. 5:119-126.

AMS (American Management Systems, Inc). 1987. Review of the Literature on Ecological End Points. Science-Policy Integration Branch, Regulatory Integration Div., Office of Policy Planning and Evaluation, USEPA, Washington, D.C.

Andersen, F.O. 1979. Decomposition of leaf litter of freshwater ecosystems with relation to environmental nutrient salt level. pp. 288-291 In: The Use of Ecological Variables in Environmental Monitoring. Rep. PM 1151. Nat. Swedish Environ. Protect. Board

Anderson, B.W. and R.D. Ohmart. 1985. Managing riparian vegetation and wildlife along the Colorado River: synthesis of data, predictive models, and management. pp. 123-127 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Anderson, B.W. and R.D. Ohmart. 1988. Structure of the winter duck community of the lower Colorado River: patterns and processes. pp. 191-193 In: M.W. Weller (ed.). Waterfowl in Winter. Univ. Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.

Anderson, J.M. 1986. Effects of acid precipitation on wetlands. Acid Precip. Res., Working Paper No. 50. Lands Directorate, Conserv. and Protect., Environ. Canada.

Anderson, P. 1965. The Reptiles of Missouri. Univ. Missouri Press, Columbia.

Anthony, R.G. and R. Kozlowski. 1982. Heavy metals in tissues of small mammals inhabiting wastewater irrigated habitats. J.Environ. Qual. 11:20-22.

Apperson, C.S. and D.G. Yows. 1976. A light trap for collecting aquatic organisms. Mosquito News 36:205-206.

Armstrong, D.P. and T.D. Nudds. 1985. Factors influencing invertebrate size distributions in prairie potholes and implications for coexisting duck species. Freshw. Invert. Biol. 4(1):41-47.

Arner, D.H., Robinette, H.R. Frasier, J.E., and M.H. Grey. 1976. Effects of Channelization of the Luxapalila River on Fish, Aquatic Invertebrates, Water Quality and Furbearers. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C., FWS/OBS-76-08.

Atchue, J.A., III, H.G. Marshall, and F. P. Day, Jr. 1982. Observations of phytoplankton composition from standing water in the Great Dismal Swamp. J. South Appalachian Bot. Club 47:308-312.

Atchue, A., III, F.P. Day, Jr., and H.G. Marshall. 1983. Algal dynamics and nitrogen and phosphorus in a cypress stand in the seasonally flooded Great Dismal Swamp. Hydrobiol.106:115-122.

Aust, W.M., S.F. Mader, and R. Lea. 1988. Abiotic changes of a tupelo-cypress swamp following helicopter and rubber-tired skidder timber harvest. Fifth Southern Silviculture Res. Conf., Memphis, TN.

Atkins, K. 1981. Biotic response to drawdown and reflooding on a clay settling pond.In: The Proc. Eighth Ann. Conf. Wetland Res. and Creation, Hillsborough Comm. College, Environ. Studies Center, Tampa Port Auth., Tampa, FL.

Aulio, K. 1980. Accumulation of copper in alluvial sediments and yellow water lilies (Nuphar lutea) at varying distances from a metal processing plant. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 25:713-717.

Baker, J.M. 1971. Seasonal effects of oil pollution on salt marsh vegetation. Oikos 22:106-110.

Baker, J.A., R.L. Kasul, L.E. Winfield, C.R. Bingham, C.H. Pennington, and R.E. Coleman. 1988. An Ecological Investigation of Revetted and Natural Bank Habitats in the Lower Mississippi River. Lower Mississippi River Environ. Program Rep. 9, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Exp. Stn., Vicksburg, MS. 81 pp.

Balsberg-Pahlsson, A-M. 1989. Toxicity of heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Cd, Pb) to vascular plants: A literature review. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 47:287-319.

Banta, B.H. and D. Marafka. 1966. An annotated check list of the recent amphibians and reptiles inhabiting the city and county of San Francisco, California. Wasmann J. Biol. 24:223-238.

Barbour, C. D., and J. H. Brown. 1974. Fish species diversity in lakes. Amer. Nat. 108:473-488.

Barko, J.W. and R.M. Smart. 1983. Effects of organic matter additions to sediment on the growth of aquatic plants. J. Ecol. 71:161-175.

Barra, J.C. 1976. The effects of a heated effluent on the species diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in Calaveras Lake, a central Texas reservoir. M.S. Thesis, Southwest Texas St. Univ., San Marcos.

Batema, D.L., G.S. Henderson, and L.H. Fredrickson. 1985. Wetland Invertebrate Distribution in Bottomland Hardwoods as Influenced by Forest Type and Flooding Regime. Fifth Central Hardwood Conference, Univ. of Illinois, Urbana.

Battarbee, R.W. and D.F. Charles. 1987. The use of diatom assemblages in lake sediments as a means of assessing the timing, trends, and causes of lake acidification. Pro. Phy. Geog. 11:552-580.

Baumann, P.C., J.C. Kitchell, J.J. Magnuson, and T.B. Haynes. 1974. Lake Wingra, 1837-1973: A case history of human impact. Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Arts Sci. Lett. 62:57-94.

Baath, E. 1989. Effects of heavy metals in soil on microbial processes and populations (a review). Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 47:335-379.

Bay, E.C. and J.R. Caton. 1969. A benthos core sampler for wading depths. Calif. Vector Views. 16:88-89.

Beals, E.W. 1973. Ordination: mathematical elegance and ecological naivete. J. Ecol. 61:23-36.

Beck, D.A., D.E. Hubbard, and K.F. Higgins. 1987. Effects of Haying on Seasonal Wetland Hydrophyte and Invertebrate Populations in South Dakota. Div. Wildl. Completion Rep., PR W-75-R, Job 4, Study 7529, Pierre, 32 pp.

Beck, L.T. 1977a. Distribution and relative abundance of freshwater macro invertebrates of the lower Atchafalaya River Basin, Lousiana. M.S. Thesis. School For. and Wildl. Manage., Lousiana State Univ., Baton Rouge.

Beck, W.M., Jr. 1977b. Environmental Requirements and Pollution Tolerance of Common Freshwater Chironomidae. Florida A & M Univ., Lab. of Aquat. Entomology, Tallahassee, FL. Grant No. R802754. EPA-600/4-77-024.

Becker, C.D., R.G. Genoway, and J.A. Merrill. 1975. Resistance of a Northwestern Crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus, to elevated Temperatures. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 104(2):374-387.

Bedford, B. 1977. Seasonally displaced water temperatures as a factor affecting depletion of stored carbohydrates in Typha latifolia. pp. 83-98 In: C.B. DeWitt and E. Soloway (eds.). Wetlands Ecology, Values and Impacts. Proc. of the Waubesa Conf. on Wetlands. Univ. Wisconsin, Madison.

Bedford, B.L. and E.M. Preston (eds.). 1988. Cumulative effects on landscape systems of wetlands: Scientific status, prospects, and regulatory perspectives. Environ. Manage. 12:561-771.

Beebee, T.J.C. 1987. Eutrophication of heathland ponds at a site in southern England: Causes and effects, with particular reference to the amphibia. Biol. Conserv. 42:39-52.

Behan, M.J., T.B. Kinraide, and W.I. Selser. 1979. Lead accumulation in aquatic plants from metallic sources including shot. J. Wildl. Manage. 43(1):240-244.

Beiswenger, R.E. 1988. Integrating anuran amphibian species into environmental assessment programs. pp. 159-165 In: R.C. Szaro, K. E. Severson, D.R. Patton (tech. coords.). Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Belanger, L. and R. Couture. 1988. Use of man-made ponds by dabbling duck broods. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:718-723.

Bell, H.L. 1971. Effect of low pH on the survival and emergence of aquatic insects. Water Res. 5:313-319.

Bellrose, F.C., F.L. Paveglio, Jr., and D.W. Steffeck. 1979. Waterfowl populations and the changing environment of the Illinois River Valley. Illinois Nat. Hist. Surv. Bull. 32(1):54.

Bellrose, F.C. Jr. and J.B. Low. 1943. The influence of flood and low water levels on the survival of muskrats. J. Mammal. 24:173-188.

Bellrose, F.C. and N.M. Trudeau. 1988. Wetlands and their relationship to migrating and winter populations of waterfowl. pp. 183-194. In: D.D. Hook, W.H. McKee, Jr., H.K. Smith, J. Gregory, V.G. Burrell, Jr., M.R. DeVoe, R.E. Sojka, S. Gilbert, R. Banks, L.H. Stolzy, D. Brooks, T.D. Matthews and T.H. Shear (eds.). The Ecology and Management of Wetlands. Vol. 1: Ecology of Wetlands. Croom Helm, London & Sydney.

Bengtsson, G. and L. Tranvik. 1989. Critical metal concentrations for forest soil invertebrates: A review of the limitations. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 47:381-417.

Benner, R., M.R. Moran, and R.E. Hodson. 1985. Effects of pH and plant source on lignocellulose biodegradation rates in two wetland ecosystems, the Okefenokee Swamp and a Georgia salt marsh. Limnol. Oceanogr. 30(3):489-499.

Benson, N.G. and P.L. Hudson. 1975. Effects of a reduced fall drawdown on benthos abundance in Lake Francis Case. Trans. Amer. Fish Soc. 104:526-528.

Bernard, J.M., D. Solander and J. Kvet. 1988. Production and nutrient dynamics in Carex wetlands. Aquat. Bot. 30:125-147.

Bettoli, P.W. 1987. The restructuring of a forage fish community following large-scale aquatic vegetation control. Ph.D. Diss., Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX. 161 pp.

Bevis, F.B. and R.H. Kadlec. 1979. Effect of long-term discharge of wastewater on a northern Michigan wetland. In: J.C. Sutherland and R.H. Kadlec (eds.). Wetlands Utilization for Management of Community Wastewater. Abstracts Conf., Higgins Lake, MI.

Biddinger, G. R., and S. P. Gloss. 1984. The importance of trophic transfer in the bioaccumulation of chemical contaminants in aquatic ecosystesm. Residue Rev. 91:103-145.

Bigelow, C.C., III. 1987. Aquatic macrophyte decomposition and macroinvertebrate colonization in a freshwater riverine marsh. M.S. Thesis, Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA. 75 pp.

Bilby, R. 1977. Effects of a spate on the macrophyte vegetation of a stream pool. Hydrobiol. 56:109-112.

Birch, J.B. and J.L. Cooley. 1983. Effect of Hydroperiod on Floodplain Forest Production. Georgia Water Resour. Res. Center, Atlanta, Tech. Completion Rep. 98 pp.

Birge, W.J., J.A. Black, and R.A. Kuehne. 1980. Effects of Organic Compounds on Amphibian Reproduction. Rep. #121, Water Resour. Res. Inst., Univ. Kentucky.

Blancher, P.J. and D.K. McNichol. 1988. Breeding biology of tree swallows in relation to wetland acidity. Can. J. Zool. 66:842-849.

Blake, J.G., J.M. Hanowski, and G.J. Niemi. 1987. ELF Communications System Ecological Monitoring Program: Bird Species and Communities. Annual Report, Subcontract # EO6549-84-011. Nat. Res. Research Inst., Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth.

Boelter, D.H. and G.E. Close. 1974. Pipelines in forested wetlands. J. Forestry 72:561-563.

Boerger, H.J., H.F. Clifford, and R.W. Davies. 1982. Density and microdistribution of Chironomid larvae in an Alberta brown-water stream. Can. J. Zool. 60:913-20.

Boesch, D.F. 1977. Application of numerical classification in ecological investigations of water pollution. EPA-600/3-77-033. U.S. Envir. Protec. Agency, Washington, D.C.

Bongers, T. The maturity index: an ecological measure of environmental disturbance based on nematode species composition. Oecologia 83:14-19.

Borthwick, S.M. 1988. Impact of agricultural pesticides on aquatic invertebrates inhabiting prairie wetlands. M.S. Thesis, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins.

Boschung, H. and P. O'Neil. 1981. The effects of forest clear-cutting on fishes and macroinvertebrates in an Alabama stream. pp. 200-217 In: L. Krumholz (ed.). Warmwater Streams Symposium, Amer. Fish. Soc.

Bosserman, R.W. and P.L. Hill, Jr. 1985. Community ecology of three wetland ecosystems impacted by acid mine drainage. pp. 287-304 In: R.P. Brooks, D.E. Samuel, and J.B. Hill (eds.). Wetlands and Water Management on Mined Lands. Penn. St. Univ., University Park, PA.

Botts, P.S. and B.C. Cowell. 1988. The distribution and abundance of herbaceous angiosperms in west-central Florida marshes. Aquat. Bot. 32:225-238.

Bowers, L.J., J.G. Gosselink, W.H. Patrick,Jr., and E.T. Choong. 1985. Influence of climatic trends on wetland studies in the eastern United States which utilize tree ring data. Wetlands 5:191-200.

Bradt, P.T. and M.B. Bert. 1987. Macrozoobenthos of three Pennsylvania lakes: Responses to acidification. Hydrobiol. 150:63-74.

Bradt, P.T., J.L. Dudley, M.B. Berg, and D.S. Barrasso. 1986. Biology and chemistry of three Pennsylvania lakes: Responses to acid precipitation. Water, Air and Soil Poll. 30:505-513.

Brady, W., D.R. Patton, and J. Paxson. 1985. The Development of Southwestern Riparian Gallery Forests. pp. 39-43 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Brennan, K.M. 1985. Effects of wastewater on wetland animal communities. pp. 199-223 In: P.J. Godfrey, E.R. Kaynor, and S.P. Pelczarski (eds.). Ecological Considerations in Wetland Treatment of Municipal Wastewater. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co.

Brett, M.T. 1989. The rotifer communities of acid-stressed lakes of Maine. Hydrobiologia 186/187: 181-189.

Brewer, R. 1967. Bird populations of bogs. Wilson Bull. 79:371-396.

Brewster, W.G., J.M. Gates, and L.D. Flake. 1976. Breeding waterfowl populations and their distribution in South Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 40(1):50-59.

Briggs, R. 1982. Avian use of small aquatic habitats in south Texas. M.S. Thesis, College Agriculture, Texas A&I Univ., Kingsville, TX, 108 pp.

Brightman, R.S. 1984. Benthic macroinvertebrate response to secondarily treated wastewater in north-central Florida cypress domes. pp. 186-96 In: K.C. Ewel and H.T. Odum (eds.). Cypress Swamps. Univ. Florida Press, Gainesville.

Brinson, M.M., A.E. Lugo, and S. Brown. 1981. Primary productivity, decomposition, and consumer activity in freshwater wetlands. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Systems. 12:123-161.

Brinson, M.M., H.D. Bradshaw, and M.N. Jones. 1985. Transitions in forested wetlands along gradients of salinity and hydroperiod. J. Elisha Mitchell Sci. Soc. 101(2):76-94.

Britton, L.J. and P.E. Greeson (eds.). 1988. Methods for collection and analysis of aquatic biological and microbiological samples. Book 5, Chapter 4A. In: Techniques of Water-Resources Investigations of the U.S. Geol. Surv. Rep. 88-190. U.S. Geol. Surv., Reston, VA.

Broadfoot, W.M. 1973. Water table depth and growth of young cottonwood. Research Note SO-168, USDA Forest Serv.

Broadfoot, W.M. and H.L. Williston. 1973. Flooding effects on southern forests. J. Forestry 71:584-587.

Brock, T.D. and I. Yoder. 1971. Thermal pollution of a small river by a large university: bacterial studies. Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 80:183-188.

Brody, M. and E. Pendleton. 1987. FORFLO: A Model to Predict Changes in Bottomland Hardwood Forests. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Slidell, LA.

Brooks, R.J. 1987. The common snapping turtle as a biomonitor of organochlorine contamination on wetland habitats.Abstract from Conf. on Environ. Risk: Recognition, Assessment, and Manage. Soc. Environ. Toxicol. & Chem. Eighth Ann. Meeting, Pensacola, FL. PA

Brooks, R.P. 1989. Monitoring Wetlands. pp.289-299 In: S.K. Mujamdar, R.P. Brooks, F.J. Brenner, and R.W. Tiner (eds.). Wetlands Ecology and Conservation: Emphasis in Pennsylvania. Penn. Aca. Sci., Philadelphia.

Brooks, R.P., D.E. Samuel, and J.B. Hill (eds.). 1985. Wetlands and Water Management on Mined Lands. Penn. St. Univ., University Park, PA.

Brooks, R.P., D.E. Arnold, and E.D. Bellis. 1987. Wildlife and plant communities of selected wetlands in the Pocono region of Pennsylvania. NWRC Open File Report 87-02. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., National Wetlands Research Center, Washington, D.C.

Brooks, R.P. and R.M. Hughes. 1988. Guidelines for assessing the biotic communities of freshwater wetlands. pp. 276-282 In: J.A. Kusler, M.L. Quammen, and G. Brooks (eds.). Proc. Nat. Wetlands Symposium: Mitigation of Impacts and Losses. ASWM Tech. Rep., Berne, NY.

Brooks, R.P., D.E. Arnold, E.D. Bellis, C.S. Keener, and M.J. Croonquist. 1989. A methodology for biological monitoring of cumulative impacts on wetland, stream, and riparian components of watersheds. Proc. International Wetlands Sympos., Charleston, SC. Assoc. of Wetland Managers, Inc., Berne, NY.

Brooks, R.P. and M.J. Croonquist. 1990. Wetland, habitat, and trophic response guilds for wildlife species in Pennsylvania. 1990. J. Penn. Acad. Sci. 64(2): In Press.

Brooks, R.P., M.J. Croonquist, D.E. Arnold, C.S. Keener, and E.D. Bellis. 1990. Conservation of Wetland-Riparian Ecosystems and Resources: A Landscape Approach. Final Report, Penn. Game Comm., Harrisburg, PA.

Broschart, M.R. and R.L. Linder. 1986. Aquatic invertebrates in level ditches and adjacent emergent marsh in a South Dakota wetland. Prairie Nat. 18:167-178.

Browder, J.A. 1988. Introduction: Aquatic organisms as indicators of environmental pollution. Water Resour. Bull. 24(5):927-929.

Brown, H.D. 1987. Aquatic macrophytes of Lake Mize, Florida, 1968-1980. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club. 114(2):180-182.

Brown, M. and J.J. Dinsmore. 1986. Implications of marsh size and isolation for marsh bird management. J. Wildl. Manage. 50(3):392-397.

Brown, M. and J.J. Dinsmore. 1988. Habitat islands and the equilibrium theory of island biogeography: testing some predictions. Oecologia 75:426-429.

Brown, M.T., J. Schaefer, and K. Brandt. 1989. Buffer Zones for Water, Wetlands, and Wildlife in the East Central Florida Region. Center for Wetlands, Univ. Florida, Gainesville. 78 pp. + appendices.

Brown, S. 1981. A comparison of the structure, primary productivity, and transpiration of cypress ecosystems in Florida. Ecol. Monogr. 51(4):403-427.

Brown, S. and L. Giese. 1988. Tree Growth Rates and Regeneration of Buttonland Swamp, Southern Illinois. Final Report to Illinois Dept. Conservation, Cache River Basin Study. Department of Forestry, Univ. Illinois, Urbana.

Brown, S. and R. Van Peer. 1989. Response of pond cypress growth to sewage effluent application. Wetl. Ecol. Manage. 1(1):13-20.

Brumfield, B. and D. K. Evans. 1982. Flora and vegetation of three wetlands in the lower Kanawha River floodplain, West Virginia. pp. 149-155 In: B.R. McDonald (ed.). Proc. of the Symposium on Wetlands of the Unglaciated Appalachian Region. West Virginia State Univ., Morgantown, WV.

Buikema, A.L., E.F. Benfield, and B.R. Niederlehner. 1981. Effects of pollution on freshwater-invertebrates. J. Water Poll. Control Fed. 53(6):1007-1014.

Bumby, M.J. 1977. Changes in submersed macrophytes in Green Lake, Wisconsin, from 1921 to 1977. Trans. Wisconsin Acad. Sci. Lett. 65:120-151.

Burger, J. 1981. The effect of human activity on birds at a coastal bay. Biol. Conserv. 32:231-241.

Burgess, S.A. and J.R. Bider. 1980. Effects of stream habitat improvements on invertebrates, trout populations, and mink activity. J. Wildl. Manage. 44:871-880.

Burk, C.J., S.D. Lauermann, and A.L. Mesrobian. 1976. The spread of several introduced or recently invading aquatic plants in western Massachusetts. Rhodora 78(816):727-767.

Burk, J.P., P. Hosier, A. Lawry, A. Lenz, and A. Mesrobian. 1973. Partial recovery of vegetation in a pollution-damaged marsh. Water Resour. Res. Center, Univ. Massachusetts, Amherst, MS.

Burnham, K.P., D.R. Anderson, and J.L. Laake. 1980. Estimation of density from line transect sampling of biological populations. Wildl. Monogr. 72:1-202.

Burt, C.J. 1988. Characteristics of the plant communities growing in the drawdown zone of Schoharie Reservoir in upstate New York. Ichthyol. Assoc., Inc., Stanford, NY. pp. 274-281 In: J. Zelazny and S. Feierabend (eds.). Increasing Our Wetland Resources. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C.

Burton, T.M. 1984. The effects of water level fluctuations of Great Lakes coastal marshes. pp. 3-13 In: H.H. Prince, F.M. D'Itri (eds.). Coastal Wetlands. Lewis Pub., Chelsea, MI.

Burton, T.M. and D.L. King. 1983. Alterations in the biodynamics of the Red Cedar River associated with human impacts during the past 20 years. pp. 181-197 In: T.D. Fontaine and S.M. Bartell (eds.). Dynamics of Lotic Ecosystems. Ann Arbor Science, Ann Arbor, MI.

Bury, R.B. and P.S. Corn. 1987. Evaluation of pitfall trapping in Northwestern forests: trap arrays with drift fences. J. Wildl. Manage. 51:112-119.

Bury, R.B. 1988. Inventory methods for amphibians and reptiles. pp. 416-419 In: J.F. Bell and T. Atterbury (eds.). Renewable Resource Inventories for Monitoring Changes and Trends. College of Forestry, Oregon St. Univ., Corvallis.

Bury, R.B. and M.G. Raphael. 1983. Inventory methods for amphibians and reptiles. pp. 416-419 In: J.F. Bell and T. Atterbury (eds.). Renewable Resource Inventories for Monitoring Changes and Trends: Proceedings of an International Conference. College of Forestry, Oregon St. Univ., Corvallis.

Butcher, R.W. 1946. Studies on the ecology of rivers. I. On the distribution of macrophytic vegetation in the rivers of Britain. J. Ecology 21:58-91.

Cairns, J.,Jr. 1974. Indicator species vs. the concept of community structure as an index of pollution. Water Resour. Bull. 10:338-47.

Cairns, J.,Jr. and J.R. Pratt. 1986. On the relation between structural and functional analyses of ecosystems. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 5:785-786.

Cairns, J.,Jr., G.R. Lanza, and B.C. Parker. 1972. Pollution related structural and functional changes in aquatic communities with emphasis on freshwater algae and protozoa. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia Proc. 124(5):79-127.

Campbell, C.A. 1974. Survival of reptiles and amphibians in urban environments. pp. 61-66 In: J.H. Noyes and D.R. Progulske (eds.). Wildlife in an Urbanizing Environment. Univ. Massachusetts, Coop. Extention Serv., Springfield, MS.

Campbell, J.M. 1983. Interpond and intrapond variation in populations of periphytic cladoceran microcrustacea. Ph.D. Diss., Texas A&M Univ., College Station, TX. 298 pp.

Campbell, L.H. 1984. The impact of changes in sewage treatment on seaducks wintering in the Firth of Forth, Scotland. Biol. Conserv. 28:173-180.

Canfield, D.E., K.A. Langeland, M.J. Maccina, W.T. Haller, and J.V. Shireman. 1983. Trophic state classification of lakes with aquatic macrophytes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40(10):1713-1718.

Canfield, D.E., Jr. and C.M. Duarte. 1988. Patterns in biomass and cover of aquatic macrophytes in Lakes: A test with Florida lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:1976-1982.

Carlough, L.A. 1989. Fluctuations in the community composition of water-column protozoa in two southeastern blackwater rivers (Georgia, USA). Hydrobiologia 185:55-62.

Carlson, D. 1971. A method for sampling larval and emerging insects using an aquatic black light trap. Can. Ent. 103:1365-1369.

Carlson, D. 1972. Comparative value of black light and cool white lamps in attracting insects to aquatic traps. J. Kans. Ent. Soc. 45:194-199.

Carlson, J.E. 1982. Preliminary report on the restoration of farmed freshwater marshes at Corkscrew Swamp Sanctuary. In: The Hillsborough Community College Environ. Studies Center & Tampa Port Authority, Proc. of the Eighth Annual Conf. on Wetlands Restoration and Creation.

Carothers, S.W., R.R. Johnson, and S.W. Aitchison. 1974. Population structure and social organization of southwestern riparian birds. Amer. Zoologist 14:97-108.

Carpenter, S.E. and J.E. Chaney. 1983. Scale of spatial pattern: four methods compared. Vegetatio 53:153-160.

Carter, V., M.K. Garrett, and P.T. Cammon. 1988. Wetland boundary determination in the Great Dismal Swamp using weighted averages. Water Resour. Bull. 24(2):297-306.

Cattneo, A. and J. Kalff. 1986. The effect of grazer size manipulation on periphyton communities. Oecologia 69:612-617.

CH2M Hill. 1989. Central Slough Pilot Study, Third Annual Report. CH2M Hill, Charleston, SC.

Chamie, J.P.M. 1976. The effects of simulated sewage effluent on decomposition, nutrient status and litterfall in a central Michigan peatland. Ph.D. Diss. Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Christy, E.J. and R.R. Sharitz. 1980. Characteristics of three populations of a swamp annual under different temperature regimes. Ecol. 6:454-460.

Chubb, S.L. and C.R. Liston. 1986. Density and distribution of larval fishes in Pentwater Marsh, a coastal wetland on Lake Michigan. J. Great Lakes Res. 12(4):332-343.

Clady, M.D. 1976. Change in abundance of inshore fishes in Oneida Lake, 1916-1970. N.Y. Fish Game J. 23:73-81.

Clark, K.L. 1986a. Responses of spotted salamander populations in central Ontario to habitat acidity. Can. Field-Nat. 100:463-469.

Clark, K.L. 1986b. Distributions of anuran populations in central Ontario relative to habitat acidity. Water Air Soil Pollut. 30:727-734.

Clarke, A.H. 1979a. Gastropods as indicators of trophic lake stages. Nautilus 94:138-142.

Clarke, A.H. 1979b. Sphaeriidae as indicators of trophic lake stages. Nautilus 94:178-184.

Clewell, A.F. and H. McAninch. 1977. Effects of a fill operation on tree vitality in the Apalachicola River floodplain, Florida. pp. 16-19 In: Proc. Conf. on the Apalachicola Drainage System. Univ. Florida, Gainesville.

Cobb, S.P. and J.R. Clark. 1981. Aquatic Habitat Studies on the Lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Rep. 2, Environ. Lab. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Exp. Stn., Vicksburg, MS, Misc. Paper E-80-1. 24 pp.

Cobb, S.P., C.H. Pennington, J.A. Baker, and J.E. Scott. 1984. Fishery and Ecological Investigations of Main Stem Levee Borrow Pits Along the Lower Mississippi River. Mississippi R. Comm., Vicksburg, MS. 120 pp.

Colby, P.J., G.R. Spangler, D.A. Hurley, and A.M. McCombie. 1972. Effects of eutrophication on salmonid communities in oligotrophic lakes. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 29:975-983.

Cole, D.N. and J.L. Marion. 1988. Recreation impacts in some riparian forests of the eastern United States. Environ. Manage. 12(1):99-107.

Coler, B.G. and B.C. Kondratieff. 1989. Emergence of Chironomidae from a delta-swamp receiving thermal effluent. Hydrobiologia 174:67-77.

Coler, R.A. and R.C. Haynes. 1966. A practical benthos sampler. Progr. Fish Cult. 28:95.

Collins, N.C., A.P. Zimmerman, and R. Knoechel. 1981. Comparisons of benthic infauna and epifauna biomass in acidified and non-acidified Ontario lakes. In: R. Singer (ed.). Effects of Acidic Precipitation on Benthos. N.Amer.Benthological Soc.

Congdon, J.D., J.L. Greene, and J.W. Gibbons. 1986. Biomass of freshwater turtles: A geographic comparison. Amer. Midl. Nat. 115(1):165-173.

Conner, J.V., C.H. Pennington, and T.R. Bosley. 1983. Larval Fish Selected Aquatic Habitats on the Lower Mississippi River. Tech. Rep. E-83-4, U.S. Army Engr. Waterw. Expt.Stn. CE, Vicksburg, MS.

Connors, P.G. 1986. Marsh and Shorebirds. pp. 351-370 In: A.Y. Cooperrider, R.J. Boyd, and H.R. Stuart. Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Denver, CO.

Conroy, M.J., G.R. Costanzo and D.B. Stotts. 1987. Winter movements of American Black Ducks in relation to natural and impounded wetlands in New Jersey. pp. 31-44. In: Whitman,W.R. and W.H. Meredith (eds.). Proceedings of a Symposium on Waterfowl and Wetlands Management in the Coastal Zone of the Atlantic Flyway. Delaware Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Dover, DE.

Cooke, G.D. 1980. Lake level drawdown as a macrophyte control technique. Water Resour. Bull. 16(2):317-322.

Cooper, C.M. 1987. Benthos in Bear Creek, Mississippi: Effects of habitat variation and agricultural sediments. J. Freshw. Ecol. 4(1):101-113.

Cooper, C.M. and J.W. Burris. 1984. Bryozoans--possible indicators of environmental quality in Bear Creek, Mississippi. J. Environ. Qual. 13(1):127-130.

Cooper, D.J. and J.C. Emerick. 1989. The effects of acid mine drainage on wetlands in the Snake River and Peru Creek drainage, Colorado. U.S. Environ. Protection Agency, Denver, CO.

Cooperrider, A.Y., R.J. Boyd, and H.R. Stuart (eds.). 1986. Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. U.S. Dept. Interior, Bur. Land Manage. Serv. Center, Denver, CO. 858 pp.

Corbet, P.S. 1965. An insect emergence trap for quantitative studies in shallow ponds. Can. Ent. 97:845-848.

Corkum, L.D. 1989. Patterns of benthic invertebrate assemblages in rivers of northwestern North America. Freshw. Biol. 21:191-205.

Corn, P.S., W. Stolzenburg, and R.B. Bury. 1989. Acid Precipitation Studies in Colorado and Wyoming: Interim Report of Surveys of Montane Amphibians and Water Chemistry. Biol. Rep. 80(40.26), Air Pollut. and Acid Rain Rep. 26, U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Fort Collins, CO. 56 pp.

Corn, P.S. and R.B. Bury. 1990. Sampling methods for terrestrial amphibians and reptiles. In: A.B. Carey and L.F. Ruggiero (tech. eds.). Wildlife-Habitat Relationships: Sampling Procedures for Pacific Northwest Vertebrates. Gen. Tech. Rep. PNW-GTR-256. USDA Forest Serv., Portland, OR.

Corn, P.S. and R.B. Bury. 1989. Logging in western Oregon: Responses of headwater habitats and stream amphibians. Forest Ecol. Manage. 29:39-57.

Corn, P.S. and J.C. Fogleman. 1984. Extinction of montane populations of the Northern Leopard Frog in Colorado. J. Herpetol. 18:147-152.

Cortwright, S.A. 1987. Impacts of species interactions and geographical-historical factors on larval amphibian community structure. Ph.D. Diss., Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN. 237 pp.

Couch, J.A. 1982. Aquatic animals as indicators of environmental exposures. J. Environ. Sci. Health A17(4):473-476.

Coulson, J.C. and J.E.L. Butterfield. 1985. The invertebrate communities of peat and upland grasslands in the north of England and some conservation implications. Biol. Conserv. 34:197-225.

Courtemanch, D.L. and S.P. Davies. 1987. A coefficient of community loss to assess detrimental change in aquatic communities. Wat. Res. 21:217-222.

Courtemanch, D.L. and K.E. Gibbs. 1979. The Effects of Sevin-4-Oil(R) on Lentic communities: A Continuation Study. Environ. Monitoring Coop. Spruce Budworm Control Proj., Maine 1978. Maine Dept. Conserv., Bur. Forestry, Augusta, ME.

Courtemanch, D.L., S.P. Davies, and E.B. Laverty. 1989. Incorporation of biological information in water quality planning. Environ. Manage. 13(1):35-41.

Cowardin, L.M. 1969. Use of flooded timber by waterfowl at the Montezuma National Wildlife Refuge. J. Wildl. Manage. 33(4):829-841.

Cowardin, L.M., V. Carter, F.C. Golet, and E.T. LaRoe. 1979. Classification of wetlands and deepwater habitats of the United States. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., U.S. Dept. of Inter., Washington, D.C.

Craig, N. and J.W. Day, Jr. 1977. Cumulative impact studies in the Louisiana coastal zone. Report to Louisiana St. Planning Office, Baton Rouge, LA.

Crance, J.H. 1988. Relationships Between Palustrine Wetlands of Forested Riparian Floodplains and Fishery Resources: A Review. Biol. Rep. 88(32). U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C. 27 pp.

Crisman, T.L., R.L. Schultze, P.L. Brezonik, and S.A. Bloom. 1980. Acid precipitation: the biotic response in Florida lakes. In: D. Drablox and A. Tollan (eds.). Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation. SNSF Project, As, Norway.

Croonquist, M.J. 1990. Avian and mammalian community comparisons between protected and altered watersheds--a landscape approach. M.S. Thesis, Penn. St. Univ., University Park, PA. 156 pp.

Cross, S.P. 1985. Responses of small mammals to forest riparian perturbations. pp. 269-275 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Crowder, A.A. and J.M. Bristow. 1988. The future of waterfowl habitats in the Canadian lower Great Lakes wetlands. J. Great Lakes Res. 14(1):115-127.

Crowder, L. B., and W. E. Cooper. 1982. Habitat structural complexity and the interaction between bluegills and their prey. Ecology 63:1802-1813.

Crumpton, W.G. 1989. Algae in Northern Prairie wetlands. pp. 188-203 In: A. van der Valk (ed.), Northern Prairie Wetlands. Iowa St. Univ. Press, Ames.

Cummins, K.W. 1976. The use of macroinvertebrate benthos in evaluating environmental damage. pp. 139-149 In: R.K. Sharma, J.D. Buffington, and J.T. McFadden (eds.). Proc. Conf. on Biological Significance of Environmental Impacts. Univ. of Mich., Ann Arbor, MI.

Cummins, K.W. and M.A. Wilzbach. 1985. Field procedures for analysis of functional feeding groups of stream macroinvertebrates. Appalachian Environ. Lab, Univ. Maryland, Frostburg, MD. 18 pp.

Cushing, C.E., C.D. McIntire, K.W. Cummins, G.W. Minshall, R.C. Petersen, J.R. Sedell, and R.L. Vannote. 1983. Relationships among chemical, physical, and biological indices along river continua based on multivariate analyses. Arch. Hydrobiol. 98(3):317.

Cushman, R.M. and J.C. Goyert. 1984. Effects of a synthetic crude oil on pond benthic insects. Envir. Pollu.(Ser. A) 33:163-186.

Cyr, H. and J.A. Downing. 1988. Empirical relationships of phytomacrofaunal abundance to plant biomass and macrophyte bed characteristics. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:976-984.

Dale, E. E., Jr. 1984. Wetlands Forest Communities as Indicators of Flooding Potential in Backwater Areas of River Bottomlands. Publication No. 106. Arkansas Water Resources Research Center, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, Arkansas.

Daniel, P.M., L. Kenneth, and M.Boesel. 1985. A comparison of clear and opaque funnel traps for emerging insects in a southwestern Ohio pond. Ohio J. Sci. 85(4):199-202.

Darnell, R., E. Pequegnat, B.M. James, F.J. Benson, and R.A. Defenbaugh. 1976. Impacts of Construction Activities in Wetlands of the United States. EPA-600/3-76-045. US EPA Envir. Res. Lab., Corvallis, OR. 393 pp.

Davis, D.E. 1982. Handbook of Census Methods for Terrestrial Vertebrates. CRC Press, Inc. 397 pp.

Davis, S.M. 1989. Sawgrass and cattail production in relation to nutrient supply in the Everglades. pp.325-342 In: R.R. Sharitz and J.W. Gibbons (eds.). Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife, Proceedings of a Symposium. CONF-8603101 (NTIS No. DE90005384). U.S. Dept. Energy, Oak Ridge, TN.

Davis, D.E. and R.L. Winstead. 1980. Estimating the numbers of wildlife populations. pp. 221-245 In: S.D. Schemnitz (ed.). Wildlife Management Techniques Manual. 4th. ed. The Wildlife Society, Inc., Washington, D.C. 686 pp.

Davis, G.J. and M.M. Brinson. 1980. Responses of submersed vascular plant communities to environmental change. FWS/OBS- 79/33. US Fish & Wildl. Serv., U.S. Dept. Interior., Kearneysville.

Davis, P.B. and C.R. Humphrys. 1977. Ecological Effects of Highway Construction Upon Michigan Woodlots and Wetlands. Proj. No. 914, Dept. Resour. Development, Michigan St. Univ., Kellogg, MI.

Dawson, C.L. and R.A. Hellenthal. 1986. A computerized system for the evaluation of aquatic habitats based on environmental requirements and pollution tolerance associations of resident organisms. EPA/600/S3-86. U.S. Environ. Protection Agency, Environ. Res. Lab. Corvallis, OR.

Day, F.P., S.K. West, and E.G. Tupacz. 1988. The influence of ground-water dynamics in a periodically flooded ecosystem, the Great Dismal Swamp. Wetlands 8:1-13.

Day, R.T., P.A. Keddy, J.M. McNeill, and T.J. Carleton. 1988. Fertility and disturbance gradients: A summary model for riverine marsh vegetation. Ecology 69:1044-54.

Dean, J.R. and K.W. Clark. 1972. Nitrogen fertilization of reed canarygrass and its effects on production and mineral element content. Can. J. Plant Sci. 52:325-331.

Deghi, G.S., K.C. Ewel, and W. Mitsch. 1980. Effects of sewage effluent application on litter fall and litter composition in cypress swamps. J. Appl. Ecol. 17:397-408.

Delucchi, C.M. 1987. Comparison of community structure among streams with different temporal flow regimes. Can. J. Zool. 66:579-586.

Deniseger, J., L.J. Erickson, A. Austin, M. Roch, and M.J.R. Clark. 1990. The effects of decreasing heavy metal concentrations on the biota of Buttle Lake, Vancouver Island, British Columbia. Water Res. 24:403-416.

Deonier, D.L. 1972. A floating adhesive trap for neustonic insects. Ann. Entomol. Soc. Amer. 65:269-270.

DesGranges, J.L., and M. Darveau. 1985. Effects of lake acidity and morphometry on the distribution of aquatic birds in southern Quebec. Holarctic Ecology 8(3):181-190.

DesGranges, J.L. and M.L. Hunter, Jr. 1987. Duckling response to land acidification. Trans. 52nd N.A. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conf., pp. 636-644.

Dewey, M.R., L.E. Holland-Bartels, and S.J. Zigler. 1989. Comparison of fish catches with buoyant pop nets and seines in vegetated and nonvegetated habitats. N. Amer. J. of Fish. Manage. 9:249-253.

Dewey, S.L. 1986. Effects of the herbicide atrazine on aquatic insect community structure and emergence. Ecol. 67:148-162.

Diaz-Paniagua, C. 1987. Tadpole distribution in relation to vegetal heterogeneity in temporary ponds. Herpetol. J. 1:167-169.

Dick-Peddie, W.A., J. V. Hardesty, E. Muldavin, and B. Sallach. 1987. Soil-vegetation correlations on the riparian zones of the Gila and San Francisco rivers in New Mexico. Biol. Report 87(9). U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Dickerman, J.A., A.J. Stewart, and R.G. Wetzel. 1986. Estimates of net annual aboveground production: Sensitivity to sampling frequency. Ecol. 67(3):650-65.

Dickman, M., J. Smol, and P. Steele. 1980. The impact of industrial shock loading on selected biocoenoses in the lower Welland River, Ontario. Water Poll. Res. J. Canada 15:17-31.

Dickman, M., C. Prescott, and K.L.E. Kaiser. 1983. Variations in the aquatic vegetation of the Welland River (Ontario, Canada) above and below an industrial waste discharge. J. Great Lakes Res. 9:317-325.

Dickman, M. 1988. Impact of industrial shock loading on the aquatic plant community of a class one wetland in regional Niagara, Ontario. pp. 307-316 In: C.D.A. Rubec and R.P. Overend (eds.). Proc. Sympos. wetlands/Peatlands. Edmonton, Alberta.

Dickman, M. and M.B. Gochnauer. 1978. Impact of sodium chloride on the microbiota of a small stream. Environ. Pollut. 17:109-126.

Dierberg, F.E. and K.C. Ewel. 1984. The effects of wastewater on decomposition and organic matter accumulation in cypress domes. pp. 164-169 In: K.C. Ewel and H.T. Odum (eds.). Cypress Swamps. Univ. Florida Press, Gainesville.

Dierberg, F.E. and P.L. Brezonik. 1982. Nitrifying population densities and inhibition of ammonium oxidation in natural and sewage-enriched cypress swamps. Water Res. 16:123-126.

Dillon, P.J., N.D. Yan, W.A. Scheider, and N. Conroy. 1979. Acidic lakes in Ontario: Characterization, extent, and responses to base and nutrient additions. Arch. Hydrobiol. Beih. Ergebn. Limnol. 13:317-336.

Dodd, C.K. and B.G. Charest. 1988. The herpetofaunal community of temporary ponds in North Florida Sandhills: species composition, temporal use, and management implications. pp. 87-97 In: R.C. Szaro, K. E. Severson, D.R. Patton (tech. coords.). Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Dodge, W.E., E.E. Possardt, R.J. Reed, and W.P. MacConnell. 1976. Channelization Assessment, White River, Vermont: Remote Sensing, Benthos, and Wildlife. FWS/OBS-76-07. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C. 73 pp.

Doetsch, R.N. and T.M. Cook. 1973. Introduction to Bacteria and their Ecobiology. University Park Press, Baltimore, Maryland. 371 pp.

Downing, J.A. 1986. A regression technique for the estimation of epiphytic invertebrate populations. Freshw. Biol. 16:161-173.

Downing, J.A. and M.R. Anderson. 1985. Estimating the standing biomass of aquatic macrophytes. Can. J. Aquat. Sci. 42:1860-1869.

Downing, J.A. and H. Cyr. 1985. Quantitative estimation of epiphytic invertebrate populations. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42:1570-1579.

Downing, J.A. and F.H. Rigler (eds). 1984. A Manual on Methods for the Assessment of Secondary Productivity on Fresh Waters. International Biol. Prog. Handbook No. 17, 2nd ed., Blackwell Sci. Pubs., Oxford.

Doyle, M., S. Koepp, and J. Klaunig. 1978. Acute toxicological response of crayfish (Orconectes limosus) to mercury. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 16(4):422-424.

Driver, E.A. 1977. Chironomid communities in small prairie ponds: some characteristics and controls. Freshw. Biol. 7:121-133.

Dromgoole, F.I. and J.M.A. Brown. 1976. Quantitative grab sampler for dense beds of aquatic macrophytes. N.Z. J. Mar. Freshw. Res. 10:109-118.

Duarte, C.M. 1987. Use of echosounder tracings to estimate the aboveground biomass of submerged plants in lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44:732-735.

Duarte, C.M., D.F. Bird, and J. Kalff. 1988. Submerged macrophytes and sediment bacteria in the littoral zone of Lake Memphremagog. Ver. Int. Theor. Angew. Limnol. 23(1): 271-281.

Duarte, C.M. and J. Kalff. 1986. Littoral slope as a predictor of the maximum biomass of submerged macrophyte communities. Limnol. Oceanogr. 31(5):1072-1080.

Duarte, C.M. and J. Kalff. 1988. Influence of lake morphometry on the response of submerged macrophytes to sediment fertilization. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:216-221.

Duebbert, H.F. and A.M. Frank. 1984. Value of prairie wetlands to duck broods. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 12:27-34.

Duever, M.J. et al. 1979. Resource Inventory and Analysis of the Big Cypress National Preserve. National Audubon Soc. Report to the National Park Service.

Duinker, P.N. and G.E. Beanlands. 1986. The significance of environmental impacts: An exploration of the concept. Environ. Manage. 10(1):1-10.

Dunn, C.P. and M.L. Scott. 1987. Response of wetland herbaceous communities to gradients of light and substrate following disturbance by thermal pollution. Vegetatio 70:119-124.

Dunn, C.P. and R.R. Sharitz. 1987. Revegetation of a Taxodium-Nyssa forested wetland following complete vegetation destruction. Vegetatio 72:151-157.

Durham, D., E. Bridges, P. Hamel, S. Pearsall, L. Smith, and P. Somers. 1985. Conserving Natural Communities: Classification and Inventory. Tennessee Dept. of Cons., Ecol. Serv. Div., Nashville, TN. Appendices.

Durocher, P.D., W.C. Provine, and J.E. Kraai. 1984. Relationship between abundance of Largemouth Bass and submerged vegetation in Texas Reservoirs. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 4:84-88.

Dvorak, J. and E.P.H. Best. 1982. Macro-invertebrate communities associated with the macrophytes of Lake Vechten: Structural and functional relationships. Hydrobiologia 95:115-126.

Dykyjova, D. and B. Ulehlova. 1978. Structure and chemistry of the fishpond bottom. pp. 141-152 In: D. Dykyjova and J. Kvet (eds.). Pond Littoral Ecosystems: Structure and Functioning. Springer-Verlag, New York.

Eadie, J.M. and A. Keast. 1984. Resource heterogeneity and fish species diversity in lakes. Can. J. Zool. 62:1689-1695.

Eberhardt, L.L. 1978. Appraising variability in population studies. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:207-238.

Ebert, T.A. and M.L. Balko. 1987. Temporary pools as islands in space and time: the biota of vernal pools in San Diego, Southern California. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie 110:101-123.

Edmonds, R.L. 1987. Litter Decomposition: An Assessment of Long-Term Microbial Activity. King County Wetlands Research Project. College For. Resour., Univ. Washington.

Edmondson, W.T and G.G. Winberg. 1971. A Manual on Methods for the Assessment of Secondary Productivity in Freshwaters. IBP Handbook #17, Blackwell Sci. Pub., Ltd., Oxford. 358 pp.

Edwards, D. 1969. Some effects of siltation upon aquatic macrophyte vegetation in rivers. Hydrobiologia 34:29-37.

Edwards, R.W. and M.W. Brown. 1960. An aerial photographic method for studying the distribution of aquatic macrophytes in shallow waters. J. Ecol. 48:161-163.

Ehrenfeld, J.G. 1983. The effects of changes in land use on swamps of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Biol. Cons. 25:353-375.

Ehrenfeld, J.G. 1986. Wetlands of the New Jersey Pine Barrens: The role of species composition in community function. Amer. Midl. Nat. 115(2):301-313.

Eichholz, N.F., D.B. Bailey, and A.V. McGehee. 1979. An Investigation of Dredged Material Disposal Sites on the Lower Apalachicola River. Florida Game & Freshw. Fish Comm., Tallahassee. 115 pp.

Eilers, J.M., G.J. Lien and R.G. Berg. 1984. Aquatic organisims in acidic environments: a literature review.Research/Management Findings Series, Wisconsin Dept. of Nat. Res., Madison, WI, Tech. Bull.

Elder, J. F., and D. J. Cairns. 1982. Production and Decomposition of Forest Litterfall on the Apalachicola River Flood Plain, Florida. Chapter B. Water-Supply Paper 2196. U.S. Geol. Surv., Reston, VA.

Elliott, J.M. 1971. Some methods for the statistical analysis of samples of benthic invertebrates. Freshw. Biol. Assoc. Sci. Publ. No. 25. 148 pp.

Emlen, J.T. 1981. Summary of the symposium. pp. 575-576 In: C.J. Ralph and J.M. Scott (eds.). Estimating Numbers of Terrestrial Birds. Studies in Avian Biology, No. 6. Allen Press, Lawrence, KS.

Eng, R.L. 1986. Waterfowl. pp. 371-386 In: A.Y. Cooperrider, R.J. Boyd, and H.R. Stuart. Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Denver, CO.

Erickson, N. E., and D. M. Leslie, Jr. 1987. Soil-vegetation correlations in the sandhills and rainwater basin wetlands of Nebraska. Biol. Report 87(11). U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Erman, D.C. and N.A. Erman. 1975. Macroinvertebrate composition and production in some Sierra Nevada minerotrophic peatlands. Ecol. 56:591-603.

Erwin, K. 1989. Wetland evaluation for restoration and creation. pp. 15-46 In: J. Kusler and M. Kentula (eds.). Wetland Creation and Restoration: The Status of the Science. EPA/600/3-89/038, US Envir. Protec. Agency, Cincinnati, OH.

Espinosa, L.R. and W.E. Clark. 1972. A polyprophylene light trap for aquatic invertebrates. Calif. Fish Game. 58:149-152.

Estep, K.W., and C.C. Remsen. 1985. Influence of the surface microlayer on nutrients, chlorophyll and algal diversity of a small eutrophic bog pond. Hydrobiologia 121:203-213.

Evans, K.E. and R.R. Kerbs. 1977. Avian use of livestock watering ponds in western South Dakota. USDA For. Serv. Gen. Tech. Rep. Rm-35, USDA For. Serv., Ft. Collins, Co. 11 pp.

Ewel, K.C. 1979. Effects of sewage recycling on structure and function of cypress ecosystems. In: J.C. Sutherland and R.H. Kadlec (eds.). Freshwater Wetlands and Sanitary Wastewater Disposal. Abstracts Conf. Jul 10-12 Higgins Lake, MI.

Ewert, D. 1982. Birds in isolated bogs in central Michigan. Amer. Midl. Nat. 108(1):41-50.

Fagerstrom, T. 1979. Interpretation of data on persistent chemicals in food chains--Possibilities and limitations. Pp. 280-287 In: The Use of Ecological Variables in Environmental Monitoring. Rep. PM 1151. Nat. Swedish Environ. Protection Bd.

Fairchild, J.F., T.P. Boyle, and E. Robinson-Wilson. 1984. Effects of inorganic nutrients on microbial leaf decomposition and mitigation of chemical perturbation. J. Freshw. Ecol. 29(4):405-416.

Farmer, A.M. and M.S. Adams. 1989. A consideration of the problems of scale in the study of the ecology of aquatic macrophytes. Aquat. Bot. 33:177-189.

Farney, R.A and Bookhout. 1982. Vegetation changes in a Lake Erie marsh (Winous Point, Ottawa County, Ohio) during high water years. Ohio Acad. Sci. 82:103-107.

Farrish, K.W. and D.F. Grigal. 1988. Decomposition in an ombrotrophic bog and a minerotrophic fen in Minnesota. Soil Sci. 145:353-358.

Faulkner, S.P., W.H. Patrick, Jr., and R.P. Gambrell. 1989. Field techniques for measuring wetland soil parameters. Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. J. 53:883-890.

Faulkner, S.P. and W.H. Patrick,Jr. n.d. Characterization of Bottomland Hardwood Wetland Transition Zones in the Lower Mississippi River Valley. U.S. Army Engineers Waterways Exp. Stn., Vicksburg, MS. Appendix A, 14 pp.

Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). 1988. Highway Runoff Water Quality Training Course Student Workbook. U.S. Dept. Transportation, Washington, D.C.

Federle, T.W. and B.S. Schwab. 1989. Mineralization of surfactants by microbiota of aquatic plants. Appl Environ. Microbiol. 55:2092-2094.

Felley, J.D. and L.G. Hill. 1983. Multivariate assessment of environmental preferences of cyprinid fish of the Illinois River, Oklahoma. Amer. Midl. Nat. 109(2):209-221.

Felton, M., J.J. Cooney, and W.C. Moore. 1966. A quantitative study of the bacteria of a temporary pond, Florenville, Louisiana. J. Gen. Microbiol. 47:25-31.

Fennikoh, K.B., H.I. Hirshfield and T.J. Kneip. 1978. Cadmium toxicity in planktonic organisms of a freshwater food web. Environ. Res. 15:357-367.

Ferren, W.R., Jr. and D.A. Pritchett. 1988. Enhancement, restoration, and creation of vernal pools at Del Sol Open Space and Vernal Pool Reserve, Santa Barbara County, California. Rep. to Isla Vista Recreation and Park Dist., Calif. State Coastal Conservancy. Environ. Res. Team, The Herbarium, Dept. of Biol. Sci., Univ. Calif., Santa Barbara, CA, Environ. Rep. No. 13.

Ferrington, L.C.,Jr. and N.H. Crisp. 1989. Water chemistry characteristics of receiving streams and the occurrence of Chironomus riparius and other Chironomidae in Kansas. Acta Biol. Debr. Hung. 3:115-126.

Ferrington, L.C.,Jr., O.K. Galle, M.A. Blackwood, C.A. Wright, W.A. Bird, J.M. Jobe, and P.B. Grant. 1988. Preliminary Assessment of the Occurrence and Biological Effects of Cadmium, Lead, Manganese, and Zinc in the Short Creek/Empire Lake Aquatic System, Cherokee County, Kansas. Contrib. No. 271, Kansas Water Resour. Inst., Univ. Kansas, Lawrence.

Finch, D.M. 1990. Habitat use and habitat overlap of riparian birds in three elevational zones. Ecol. 70:866-880.

Finger, T.R. and E.M. Stewart. 1988. Response of fishes to flooding regime in lowland hardwood wetlands. pp. 86-92 In: W.J. Matthews and D.C. Heins (eds.). Evolutionary and Community Ecology of North America Stream Fishes. Univ. Oklahoma Press, Stillwater.

Finlayson, M., P. Cullen, D.S. Mitchell, and A. Chick. 1986. An assessment of a natural wetland receiving sewage effluent. Australian Ecol. 11:33-47.

Fishman Environmental Services. 1989. Columbia Slough water quality management plan aquatic biology final report: Benthic invertebrates, Fish and Bioaccumulation. City of Portland, Oregon, Bureau of Environ. Serv.

Flake, L.D., G.L. Peterson, and W.L. Tucker. 1977. Habitat relationships of breeding waterfowl of stock ponds in northwestern South Dakota. Proc. South Dakota Acad. Sci. 56:135-151.

Flake, L. D. 1979. Wetland diversity and waterfowl. pp. 312-319 in P.E. Greeson, J.R. Clark, and J.E. Clark (eds.). Wetland Functions and Values: The State of Our Understanding. Amer. Water Res. Assoc., Minneapolis, MN.

Flensburg, T. and J.H. Spalding. 1973. The algal microflora of a string mire in relation to the chemical composition of water. Can. J. Bot. 51(4):743-749.

Floyd, K.P., R.D. Hoyt and S. Timbrook. 1984. Chronology of appearance and habitat partitioning by stream larval fishes. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 113:216-223.

Ford, J. 1989. The effects of chemical stress on aquatic species composition and community structure. pp. 99-144 In: S.A. Levin, M.A. Harwell, J.R. Kelly, and K.D. Kimball. Ecotoxicology: Problems and Approaches. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Fowler, D.K., D.M. Hill, and L.J. Fowler. 1985. Colonization of coal surface mine sediment ponds in Southern Appalachia by aquatic organisms and breeding amphibians. pp. 261-285 In: R.P. Brooks, D.E. Samuel, and J.B. Hill (eds.). Wetlands and Water Management on Mined Lands. Univ. Penn., University Park, PA.

France, R.L. 1988. Biomass variance function for aquatic macrophytes in Ontario (Canada) Shield Lakes. Aquat. Bot. 32:217-224.

Franklin, K. T., and R. E. Frenkel. 1987. Monitoring a Wetland Wastewater Treatment System at Cannon Beach, Oregon. Department of Geography, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon.

Freda, J. 1986. The influence of acidic pond water on amphibians: a review. Water Air Soil Pollut. 30:439-450.

Freda, J. and W.A. Dunson. 1986. Effects of low pH and other chemical variables on the local distribution of amphibians. Copeia 1986:454-466.

Fredrickson, L.H. 1979. Floral and Faunal Changes in Lowland Hardwood Forests in Missouri Resulting from Channelization, Drainage, and Improvement. FWS/OBS-78/91. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, DC. 131 pp.

Fredrickson, L.H. and F.A. Reid. 1986. Wetland and riparian habitats: A nongame management overview. pp. 59-96 In: J.B. Hale, L.B. Best, and R.L. Clawson (eds.). Management of Nongame Wildlife: A Developing Art. North-central Section of the Wildlife Society, Chelsea, MI.

Fredrickson, L.H. and F.A. Reid. 1988a. Considerations of community characteristics for sampling vegetation. Sec. 13.4.1, Waterfowl Management Handbook. Fish & Wildl. Leaflet 13. U.S. Dept. Inter., Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Fredrickson, L.H. and F.A. Reid. 1988b. Initial considerations for sampling wetland invertebrates. Sec. 13.3.2, Waterfowl Management Handbook. Fish & Wildl. Leaflet 13. U.S. Dept. Inter., Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Fredrickson, L.H. and T.S. Taylor. 1982. Management of Seasonally-flooded Impoundments for Wildlife. Resour. Pub. 148, U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C. 28 pp.

Freeman, B.J., H.S. Greening, and J.D. Oliver. 1984. Comparison of three methods for sampling fishes and macroinvertebrates in a vegetated freshwater wetland. J. Freshw. Ecol. 2(6):603-609.

Fremling, C.R. and W.L. Mauck. 1980. Methods for using nymphs of Burrowing Mayflies (Ephemeroptera, Hexagenia) as Toxicity Test Organisms. pp. 81-97 In: Aquatic Invertebrate Bioassays. Amer. Soc. Testing Materials. Spec. Tech. Pub. 715.

Friberg, F., C. Otto, and B.S. Svensson. 1980. Effects of acidification on the dynamics of allochthonous leaf material and benthic invertebrate communities in running waters. pp. 304-305 In: D. Drablos and A. Tollan (eds.). Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation. Proceedings of an International Conference, Sandefjord, Norway.

Friday, L.E. 1987. The diversity of macroinvertebrate and macrophyte communities in ponds. Freshw. Biol. 18:87-104.

Fritzell, E.K. 1987. Mammals and wetlands. pp. 213-226 In: D.D. Hook, W.H. McKee, Jr., H.K. Smith, J. Gregory, V.G. Burrell, Jr., M.R. DeVoe, R.E. Sojka, S. Gilbert, R. Banks, L.H. Stolzy, D. Brooks, T.D. Matthews and T.H. Shear (eds.). The Ecology and Management of Wetlands. Croom Helm, London & Sydney.

Fryer, G. 1980. Acidity and species diversity in freshwater crustacean faunas. Freshwater Biol. 10:41-45.

Fryer, G. 1985. Crustacean diversity in relation to the size of water bodies: Some facts and problems. Freshw. Biol. 15:347-361.

Fuller, R.J. and D.E. Glue. 1980. Sewage works as bird habitats in Britain. Biol. Conserv. 17(3):165-181.

Furse, M.T., J.F. Wright, P.D. Armitage, and D. Moss. 1981. An appraisal of pond-net samples for biological monitoring of lotic macroinvertebrates. Water Res. 15:679-689.

Gammon, J.R. and J.M. Reidy. 1981. The role of tributaries during an episode of low dissolved oxygen in the Wabash River, Indiana. pp. 396-407 In: L. Krumholz (ed.). Warmwater Streams Symposium, Amer. Fish. Soc.

Garono, R. J., and D. B. MacLean. 1988. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) of Ohio wetlands as indicated by light-trapping. Ohio J. Sci. 88:143-151.

Gascon, D. and W.C. Leggett. 1977. Distribution, abundance, and resource utilization of littoral zone fishes in response to a nutrient/production gradient in Lake Memphremagog. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 34:1105-1117.

Gates, T.E., D.J. Baird, F.J. Wrona, and R.W. Davies. 1987. A device for sampling macroinvertebrates in weedy ponds. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 6(2):133-139.

Gatter, R. 1986. A survey of the benthic macroinvertebrates of the Great Swamp National Wildlife Refuge and its immediate environs, Morris County, New Jersey. M.S. Thesis, Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, N.J.

Gauch, H.G. 1982. Multivariate Analysis in Community Ecology. Cambridge Univ. Press, Cambridge, England.

Geier, A.R. and L.B. Best. 1980. Habitat selection by small mammals of riparian communities: evaluating effects of habitat alterations. J. Wildl. Manage. 44(1): 16-24.

Geis, J.W. 1984. Environmental influences on the distribution and composition of wetlands in the Great Lakes Basin. pp. 15-31 In: Prince, H.H., F.M. D'Itri (eds.) Coastal Wetlands. Lewis Pub. Inc., Chelsea, MI.

Gerking, S.D. 1957. A method of sampling the littoral macrofauna and its application. Ecol. 38:219-226.

Gerrish, N. and J.M. Bristow. 1979. Macroinvertebrate associations with aquatic macrophytes and artificial substrates. J. Great Lakes Res. 5(1):69-72.

Gibbons, J.W. and D.H. Bennett. 1974. Determination of anuran terrestrial activity patterns by a drift fence method. Copeia 1974:236-243.

Gibbons, J.W. and R.D. Semlitsch. 1982. Terrestrial drift fences with pitfall traps: an effective technique for quantitative sampling of animal populations. Brimleyana 7:1-16.

Gibbons, J.W. and R.R. Sharitz. 1974. Thermal alteration of aquatic ecosystems. American Scientist 62:660-670.

Gibbs, K.E., T.M. Mingo, D.L. Courtemanch, and D.J. Stairs. 1981. The Effects on Pond Macroinvertebrates from Forest Spraying of Carbaryl (Sevin-4-Oil) and its Persistence in Water and Sediment. In: Environ. Monitoring Rept, Maone Forest Serv., Augusta.

Giddings, J.M., P.J. Franco, R.M. Cushman, L.A. Hook, G.R. Southworth, and A.J. Stewart. 1984. Effects of chronic exposure to coal-derived oil on freshwater ecosystems: II. Experimental ponds. Environ. Toxic. Chem. 3:465-488.

Giddings, J.M., P.J. Franco, S.M. Bartell, R.M. Cushman, S.E. Herbes, L.A. Hook, J.D. Newbold, G.R. Southworth, and A.J. Stewart. 1985. Effects of Contaminants on Aquatic Ecosystems: Experiments with Microcosms and Outdoor Ponds, a SynThesis Report. Environ. Sci. Div., Oak Ridge Nat. Lab., ORNL/TM-9536, Pub. No. 2381.

Giese, J., B. Keith, M. Maner, R. McDaniel, and B. Singleton. 1987. Physical, Chemical, and Biological Characteristics of Least-disturbed Streams in Arkansas' Ecoregions. Dept. Pollut. Control and Ecology, Little Rock, AR.

Gignac, L.D. 1987. Ecological tolerance and niche structure of Sphagnum along a pollution gradient near Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Can. J. Bot. 65:1268-1274.

Gilinsky, E. 1984. The role of fish predation and spatial heterogeneity in determining benthic community structure. Ecology 65:455-468.

Gillespie, D.M. and C.J.D. Brown. 1966. A quantitative sampler for macroinvertebrates associated with aquatic macrophytes. Limnol. Oceanogr. 11:404-406.

Gladwin, D.N., K.M. Manci, and R. Villella. 1988. Effects of Aircraft Noise and Sonic Booms on Domestic Animals and Wildlife. NERC-88/32. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Glahn, J.F. 1974. Study of breeding rails with recorded calls in north-central Colorado. Wilson Bull. 86(3):206-214.

Glaser, P.H. 1987. The development of streamlined bog islands in the interior of North America. Arctic and Alpine Research 19:402-413.

Glaser, P.H., G.A. Wheeler, E. Gorham, and H.E. Wright, Jr. 1981. The patterned mires of the Red Lake Peatland, northern Minnesota: Vegetation, water chemistry and land forms. J. Ecol. 69:575-599.

Glime, J.M., R.G. Wetzel, and B.J. Kennedy. 1982. The effects of bryophytes on succession from alkaline marsh to Sphagnum bog. W.K. Kellogg Biol. Stn., Michigan State Univ., Hickory Corners, MI.The Amer. Midl. Nat. 108(2):209-223.

Godshalk, G.L. and R.G. Wetzel. 1978. Decomposition of aquatic angiosperms. I. Dissolved Components. Aquat. Bot. 5:281-300.

Godwin, H. 1923. Dispersal of pond floras. J. Ecol. 11:160-164.

Goldsborough, L.G. and A.E. Beck. 1989. Rapid dissipation of glyphosate in small forest ponds. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 18:537-544.

Goldsborough, L.G. and G.G.C. Robinson. 1983. The effect of two triazine herbicides on the productivity of freshwater marsh periphyton. Aquat. Toxicol. 4:95-112.

Goldsborough, L.G. and G.G.C. Robinson. 1986. Changes in algal community structure as a consequence of short herbicide exposures. Hydrobiologia 139:177-192.

Golembiewski, T.A. 1984. The influence of pH and nutrient availability on the distribution of Sarracenia purpurea in three southeastern Wisconsin fens. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, WI.

Gomez, M. M., and F. P. Day, Jr. 1982. Litter nutrient content and production in the Great Dismal Swamp. Amer. J. Bot. 69:1314-1321.

Gordon, D.H., B.T. Gray and R.M. Kaminski. 1987. A preliminary analysis of habitat use by dabbling ducks wintering in coastal wetlands of South Carolina. pp. 13-25. In: Whitman, W.R. and W.H. Meredith (eds.). Proceedings of a Symposium on Waterfowl and Wetlands Management in the Coastal Zone of the Atlantic Flyway. Delaware Dept. of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, Dover, DE.

Gosner, K.L. and I.H. Black. 1957. The effects of acidity on the development and hatching of New Jersey frogs. Ecol. 38:256-262.

Graber, J.W. and R.W. Graber. 1976. Environmental evaluations using birds and their habitats. Ill. Nat. Hist. Surv., Biol. Notes 97:1-39.

Graffius, J.H. 1958. An ecological comparison of two bog areas with specific references to the algal flora. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Grahn, O. 1976. Macrophytes succession in Swedish lakes caused by deposition of airborne acid substances. pp. 519-530 In: Proceedings of the First International Symposium on Acid Precipitation and Forest Ecosystems. Gen. Tech. Rep. NE-23, USDA For. Serv., Broomall, PA.

Graneli, W. and D. Solander. 1988. Influence of aquatic macrophytes on phosphorus cycling in lakes. Hydrobiologia 170:245-266.

Grant, M.A. and W.J. Payne. 1982. Effects of pesticides on denitrifying activity in salt marsh sediments. J. Environ. Qual. 11(3):369-372.

Graul, W.D. and G.C. Miller. 1984. Strengthening ecosystem management approaches. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 12:282-289.

Green, W.E. 1947. Effect of water impoundment on tree mortality and growth. J. Forestry 45:118-120.

Gray, J.S., D. Boesch, C. Heip, A.M. Jones, J. Lassig, R. Vanderhorst, and D. Wolfe. 1980. The role of ecology in marine pollution monitoring. pp. 237-252 In: A.D. McIntyre and J.B. Pearce (eds.). Biological Effects of Marine Pollution and the Problems of Monitoring. Rapp. P.-v. Reun. Cons. Int. Explor. Mer 179.

Green, R.H. and G.L. Vascotto. 1978. A method for the analysis of environmental factors controlling patterns of species composition in aquatic communities. Water Res. 12:583-590.

Greening, H.S. and J. Gerritsen. 1987. Changes in macrophyte community structure following drought in the Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia, USA. Aquat. Bot. 28:113-128.

Greenstone, M.H. 1979. A sampling device for aquatic arthropods active at the water surface. Ecology. 60:642-644.

Grigal, D.F. 1972. Plant indicators in ecology. pp. 257-267. In: W.A. Thomas (ed.). Indicators of Environmental Quality. Plenum Press, NY.

Grigal, D.F. 1985. Impact of right-of-way construction on vegetation on the Red Lake Peatland, northern Minnesota. Environ. Manage. 9(5):449-454.

Grigal, D.F. 1985. Sphagnum production in forested bogs of northern Minnesota. Can. J. Bot. 1204-1207.

Grondin, P. and L. Couillard. 1988. Flooding Periods and Water Management Programmes for the Silver Maple Forests of St. Louis Lake, in the Temperate Region of Quebec. pp. 559-572 In: C.D.A. Rubec and R.P. Overend (eds.). Proc. Sympos. wetlands/Peatlands. Edmonton, Alberta.

Gross, C.F. and G.A. Jung. 1978. Magnesium, calcium, and potassium concentration in temperate-origin forage species as affected by temperature and magnesium fertilization. Agron. J. 70:397-403.

Grue, C.E., L.R. Deweese, P. Mineau, G.A. Swanson, J.R. Foster, P.M. Arnold, J.N. Huckins, P.J. Sheehan, and W.K. Marshall. 1986. Potential impacts of agricultural chemicals on waterfowl and other wildlife inhabiting prairie wetlands: An evaluation of research needs and approaches. Trans. 51st. N. Amer. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conf.

Gunderson, L. 1989. Historical hydropatterns in wetland communities of Everglades National Park. pp. 1099-1112 In: R.R. Sharitz and J.W. Gibbons (eds.). Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife, Proceedings of a Symposium. CONF-8603101 (NTIS No. DE90005384). U.S. Dept. Energy, Oak Ridge, TN.

Gunning, G. E., and R. D. Suttkus. 1984. Stream pollution monitoring using species composition of fish populations and water quality data. pp. 209-221 In: R.J. Varnell (ed.), Proc. Water Quality and Wetland Management Conf., Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge.

Guntenspergen, G.R., W. Kappel, and F. Stearns. 1980. Response of a bog to application of lagoon sewage: The Drummond Project--an operational trial. pp. 559-561 In: Proceedings of the 6th Internat. Peat Congress, Duluth, MN.

Gurney, S.E. and G.G.C. Robinson. 1989. The influence of two triazine herbicides on the productivity, biomass, and community composition of freshwater marsh periphyton. Aquat. Bot. 36:1-22.

Haack, S.K., G.R. Best, and T.L. Crisman. 1989. Aquatic macroinvertebrate communities in a forested wetland: interrelationships with environmental gradients. pp. 437-454 In: R.R. Sharitz and J.W. Gibbons (eds.). Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife, Proceedings of a Symposium. CONF-8603101 (NTIS No. DE90005384). U.S. Dept. Energy, Washington, D.C.

Haag, R.W. and P.R. Gorham. 1977. Effects of thermal effluent on standing crop and net production of Elodea canadensis and other submerged macrophytes in Lake Wabamun, Alberta. J. Appl. Ecol. 14:835-851.

Hackney, C.T. and O.P. Hackney. 1978. An improved, conceptually simple technique for estimating the productivity of marsh vascular flora. Gulf Res. Rep. 6(2):125-129.

Hale, H.M. and G.E. Miller. 1978. Changes in the aquatic macrophyte flora of Whitewater Lake near Sudbury, Ontario from 1947-1977. Can. Field-Nat. 92:264-270.

Hale, M.M. and D.R. Bayne. 1983. Effects of water level fluctuations on the littoral macroinvertebrates of West Point Reservoir. Proc. Ann. Conf. S.E. Assoc. Fish & Wildl. Agencies 34:175-180.

Hall, H.D. 1979. The spatial and temporal distribution of ichthyoplankton of the upper Atchafalaya Basin. M.S. Thesis, School For. and Wildl. Mgmt., Lousiana St. Univ., Baton Rouge. 60 pp.

Hall, D.J. and E. E. Werner. 1977. Seasonal distribution and abundance of fishes in the littoral zone of a Michigan lake. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 106:545-555.

Hall, R.J. and G.E. Likens. 1980. Ecological effects of experimental acidification of stream ecosystems. pp. 375-376 In: D. Drablos and A. Tollan (eds.). Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation. Proceedings of an International Conference, Sandefjord, Norway.

Hall, R.J., G.E. Likens, S.B. Fiance, and G.R. Hendrey. 1980. Experimental acidification of a stream in the Hubbard Brook experimental forest, New Hampshire. Ecology 61:976-989.

Haller, W.T., D.L. Sutton, and W.C. Barlowe. 1974. Effects of salinity on growth of several aquatic macrophytes. Ecology 55:891-894.

Halvorson, C.H. 1984. Long term monitoring of small vertebrates: A review with suggestions. pp. 11-25 In: Research Natural Areas: Baseline Monitoring and Management. Proc. Symposium., Missoula, MT. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-173. USDA Forest Serv., Ogden, UT.

Hammerson, G.A. 1982. Bullfrogs eliminating leopard frogs in Colorado? Herp. Rev. 13:115-116.

Hamilton, P.B., G.S. Jackson, N.K. Kaushik, and K.R. Solomon. 1987. The impact of atrazine on lake periphyton communities, including carbon uptake dynamics using track autoradiography. Environ. Pollut. 46:83-103.

Hanowski, J.M. and G.J. Niemi. 1987. Bird populations and communities in a northern Minnesota wetland before-and-after addition of sewage effluent. Nat. Res. Research Institute, Center for Water and the Environment, Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth.

Hanson, J.S. 1990. Landscape fragmentation and dispersal in a model of riparian forest dynamics. Ecol. Modelling 49:277-296.

Hanson, R.W. 1952. Effects of some herbicides and insecticides on biota of North Dakota marshes. J. Wildl. Manage. 16(3):299-308.

Hanson, J.M., E.E. Prepas, and W.C. Mackay. 1989. Size distribution of the macroinvertebrate community of a freshwater lake. Can. J. Fish Aq. Sci. 46:1510-1519.

Hanson, B.A. and G.A. Swanson. 1989. Coleoptera species inhabiting prairie wetlands of the cottonwood lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota. Prairie Nat. 21(1):49-57.

Hardin, D.L. 1975. Animal community structure of Adirondack wetlands. M.S. Thesis, State Univ. of NY, Syracuse. 191 pp.

Harms, W.R., H.T. Schreuder, D.D. Hook, C.L. Brown, and F.W. Shropshire. 1980. The effects of flooding on the swamp forest in Lake Ocklawaha, Florida. Ecol. 6(6):1412-1421.

Harris, T.L, et. al. 1978. Environmental Requirements and Pollution Tolerance of Trichoptera. Purdue Univ., Dept. of Entomology, Lafayette, IN.

Harris, H.J., G. Fewless, M. Milligan, and W. Johnson. 1981. Recovery Processes and Habitat Quality in a Freshwater Coastal Marsh Following a Natural Disturbance. In: Proc. Midw. Conf., Wetland Values & Manage., Freshw. Soc., Navarre, MN.

Harris, H.J., M.S. Milligan, and G.A. Fewless. 1983. Diversity: Quantification and ecological evaluation in freshwater marshes. Biol. Conserv. 27:99-110.

Harris, J.L., F.L. Burnside, B.L. Richardson, and W.K. Welch. 1984. Methods for analysis of highway construction impacts on a wetland ecosystem--a multidisciplinary approach. pp. 7-17 In: Wetlands and Roadside Management. Transportation Res. Rec. 969, Trans. Res. Board, National Research Council, Washington, D.C.

Harris, R.R., R.J. Risser, and C.S. Fox. 1985. A method for evaluating streamflow discharge-- plant species occurrence patterns on headwater streams. pp. 87-90 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Harris, S.W. and W.H. Marshall. 1963. Ecology of water level manipulations on a northern marsh. Ecol. 44:331-343.

Harris, L.D. and C.R. Vickers. 1984. Some faunal community characteristics of cypress ponds and the changes induced by perturbations. pp. 171-185 In: K.C. Ewel and H.T. Odum (eds.). Cypress Swamps. Univ. Florida Press, Gainesville.

Hart, K.M. and J.C. Cairns. 1984. The maintenance of structural integrity of freshwater protozoan communities under stress. Hydrobiologia 108:171-180.

Hartland-Rowe, R. and P.B. Wright. 1975. Effects of sewage effluent on a swamp land stream. Verh. International 19:1575-1583.

Hartog, C.D., J. Kvet, and H. Sukopp. 1989. Reed--A common species in decline. Aquat. Bot. 35:1-4.

Harvey, H.H. and J.M. McArdle. 1986. Composition of the benthos in relation to pH in the LaCloche Lakes. Water, Air, & Soil Poll. 30:529-536.

Haslam, S. 1973. Some aspects of the life history and autecology of Phragmites communis: A review. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii 20:79-100.

Haslam, S.M. 1982. A proposed method for monitoring river pollution using macrophytes. Environ. Tech. Lett. 3:19-34.

Hassel, J.H., R.J. Reash, and H.W. Brown. 1988. Distribution of upper and middle Ohio River fishes, 1973-1975: I. Associations with water quality and ecological variables. J. Freshw. Ecol. 4(4):441-458.

Hastings, R.W. 1984. The fishes of the Mullica River, a naturally acid water system of the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Bull. New Jersey Acad. Sci. 29(1):9-23.

Hauer, F.R., N.L. Poff, and P.L. Firth. 1986. Leaf litter decomposition across broad thermal gradients in southeastern coastal plain streams and swamps. J. Freshw. Ecol. 3:545-552.

Hauer, F.R. and N.L. Poff. 1986. Leaf litter decomposition across broad thermal gradients in southeastern coastal plain streams and swamps. J. Freshw. Ecol. 3(4):545-549.

Hayes, M.P. and M.R. Jennings. 1986. Decline of ranid frog species in western North America: are bullfrogs responsible? J. Herpetol. 20:490-509.

Haymes, G.T. and R.W. Sheehan. 1982. Wintering waterfowl around Pickering Nuclear Generating Station. Can. Field-Nat. 96:172-175.

Haynes, R.R. 1984. Techniques for collecting aquatic and marsh plants. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 71:229-231.

Hecky, R.E., and P. Kilham. 1988. Nutrient limitation of phytoplankton in freshwater and marine environments: a review of recent evidence on the effects of enrichment. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33(4 part 2):796-822.

Hegdal, R.J. and B.A. Colvin. 1986. Radiotelemetry. pp. 679-698 In: A.Y. Cooperrider, R.J. Boyd, and H.R. Stuart. Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Denver, CO.

Heilman, J.L. 1982. Evaluating depth to shallow groundwater using Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) data. Photogrammetric Engin. & Remote Sens. 48(12):1903-1906.

Heitmeyer, M.E. and P.A. Vohs, Jr. 1984. Distribution and habitat use of waterfowl wintering in Oklahoma. J. Wildl. Manage. 48(1):51-62.

Helgren, E.C. and M.R. Vaughan. 1989. Denning ecology of black bears in a southeastern wetland. J. Wildl. Manage. 53:347-352.

Heliotis, F.D. and C.B. DeWitt. 1987. Rapid water table responses to rainfall in a northern peatland ecosystem. Water Res. Bull. 23:1011-1016.

Hellawell, J.M. 1984. Biological Indicators of Freshwater Pollution and Environmental Management. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London and New York. 528 pp.

Helliwell, D.R. 1983. The conservation value of areas of different size: Worchestershire Ponds. J. Environ. Manage. 16: 179-183.

Hellquist, C.B. and G.E. Crow. 1984. Aquatic Vascular Plants of New England. N.H. Agric. Exp. Stn. Bull. 515,518,523,527. Univ. of New Hampshire, Durham, NH.

Hendrey, G.R. and F. Vertucci. 1980. Benthic plant communities in acidic Lake Colden, New York: Sphagnum and the algal mat. pp. 314-315 In: D. Drablos and A. Tollan (eds.). Ecological Impact of Acid Precipitation. Proceedings of an International Conference, Sandefjord, Norway.

Henebry, M.S., J. Cairns, C.R. Schwintzer, and W.H. Yongue. 1981. A comparison of vascular vegetation and protozoan communities in some freshwater wetlands of northern lower Michigan. Hydrobiologia 83:353-375.

Henebry, M.S. and J. Cairns, Jr. 1984. Protozoan colonization rates and trophic status of some freshwater wetland lakes. J. Protozool. 31(3):456-467.

Hepp, J.P. 1987. An ecological survey of four newly created surface-mine wetlands in central Pennsylvania. M.S. Thesis, School of Forest Resources, Penn. St. Univ., University Park, Pennsylvania. 186 pp.

Herke, W.H. 1969. A boat-mounted surface push-trawl for sampling juveniles in tidal marshes. Progressive Fish Culturist 31:177-179.

Herman, D., N.K. Kaushik, and K.R. Solomon. 1986. Impact of atrazine on periphyton in freshwater enclosures and some ecological consequences. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44:1917-1925.

Hern, S.C. 1978. Distribution and Importance of Phytoplankton in the Atchafalaya Basin. EPA-600/3-78-001. USEPA, Washington, D.C.

Herricks, E.E. and J. Cairns, Jr. 1982. Biological Monitoring. Part III - Receiving system methodology based on community structure. Water Res. 16:141-153.

Hiley, P.D., J.F. Wright, and A.D. Berrie. 1981. A new sampler for stream benthos, epiphytic macrofauna, and aquatic macrophytes. Freshw. Biol. 11:79-85.

Hill, B.H. 1985. The breakdown of macrophytes in a reservoir wetland. Aquat. Bot. 21:23-31.

Hill, J. and G.D. Grossman. 1987. Home range estimates for three North American stream fishes. Copeia 1987:376-380.

Hill, J.B. 1986. Wildlife use of wetlands on coal surface mines in Western Pennsylvania. M.S. Thesis, School of Forest Resources. Penn. St. Univ., University Park, PA. 92 pp.

Hill, M.O. 1979. Twinspan and Decorana. Cornell Univ., Ithaca, N.Y.

Hilsenhoff, W.L. 1977. Use of Arthropods to Evaluate Water Quality of Streams. Dept. Nat. Resour. Tech. Bull. 100-16, Lansing, MI.

Hiltunen, J.K. and B.A. Manny. 1982. Distribution and abundance of macrozoobenthos in the Detroit River and Lake St. Clair, 1977. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Great Lakes Fish. Lab., Ann Arbor, MI. 87 pp.

Hocutt, C.H. 1978. Fish. pp. 80-103 In: Methods for the Assessment and Prediction of Mineral Mining Impacts on Aquatic Communities. Fish & Wildl. Serv., U.S. Dept. Interior, Washington, D.C.

Hocutt, C.H. and E.O. Wiley. 1988. The Zoogeography of North American Freshwater Fishes. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 849 pp.

Hodson, R.E. 1980. Microbial degradation of industrial wastes applied to freshwater swamps and marshes. Georgia Inst. of Tech., Atlanta. Rep. No. A-082-GA.

Holcomb, D. and W. Wegener. 1971. Hydrophytic changes related to lake fluctuation as measured by point transects. Proc. Southeast Assoc. Game and Fish. Comm. 25:570-583.

Holland, L.E. 1987. Effect of brief navigation-related dewaterings on fish eggs and larvae. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 7:145-147.

Homer, M.L. and J.B. Williams. 1986. The Effects of Aquatic Macrophyte Control on Fish Populations Inhabiting an Abandoned Rice Field in the Upper Cooper River, South Carolina. Dept. of Environ. Health Sci., Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. 170 pp.

Hook, D.D. 1984. Waterlogging tolerance of lowland tree species of the south. Southern J. Applied For. 8?:136-149.

Hooper, C.A. 1982. An experimental study of algal communities on Sphagnum. Ph.D. Diss., Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. 189 pp.

Hooper-Reid, N.M. 1978. Primary productivity, standing crop and seasonal dynamics of epiphytic algae in a southern Manitoba marsh pond. Ph.D. Diss., Univ. of Manitoba, Canada.

Hooper-Reid, N.M. and G.G.C. Robinson. 1978a. Seasonal dynamics of epiphytic algal growth in a marsh pond: Productivity, standing crop, and community composition. Can. J. Bot. 56:2432-2440.

Hooper-Reid, N.M. and G.G.C. Robinson. 1978b. Seasonal dynamics of epiphytic algal growth in a marsh pond: Composition, metabolism, and nutrient availability. Can. J. Bot. 56:2441-2448.

Horner, R.R., F.B. Gutermuth, L.L. Conquest, and A.W. Johnson. 1988. Urban stormwater and Puget Trough wetlands. Proc. Puget Sound Res. 2:723-746, Puget Sound Water Quality Authority, Seattle, WA.

Horner, R.R. and K.J. Raedeke. 1989. Guide for Wetland mitigation project monitoring. Washington State Dept. Trans., Olympia, WA. Rep. No. WA-RD 195.1.

Hosner, J.F. 1960. Relative tolerance to complete inundation of fourteen bottomland tree species. Forest Sci. 6:246-251.

Hosseini, S.Y. 1986. The effects of water level fluctuations on algal communities of freshwater marshes. Ph.D. Diss., Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA.

Hough, R.A., M.D. Fornwall, B.J. Negele, R.L. Thompson, and D.A. Putt. 1989. Plant community dynamics in a chain of lakes: principal factors in the decline of rooted macrophytes with eutrophication. Hydrobiologia 173:199-217.

Hough, R.A. and M.D. Forwall. 1988. Interactions of inorganic carbon and light availability as controlling factors in aquatic macrophyte distribution and productivity. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33(5):1202-1208.

Howmiller, R.P. and M.A. Scott. 1977. An environmental index based on the relative abundance of oligochaete species. J. Water Poll. Contr. Fed. 49:809-815.

Hoy, M.D. 1987. Waterfowl use of a northcentral Texas reservoir. M.S. Thesis, Texas A&M Univ., College Station. 90 pp.

Hubbard, D. E., J. B. Millar, D. D. Malo, and K. F. Higgins. 1988. Soil-vegetation Correlations in Prairie Potholes of Beadle and Deuel Counties, South Dakota. Biol. Report 88(22). U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Hudson, M.S. 1983. Waterfowl production on three age-classes of stock ponds in Montana. J. Wildl. Manage. 47(1):112-117.

Hudson, R.H., R.K. Tucker, and M.A. Haegele. 1984. Handbook of toxicity of pesticides to wildlife. (2nd ed.) Resour. Pub. 153, Fish & Wildl. Serv., U.S. Dept. Interior, Washington, D.C.

Huener, J.D. 1984. Marcroinvertebrate response to marsh management. M.S. Thesis, Utah State Univ., Logan.

Huffman, E.W.D. and W.H. Allaway. 1973. Growth of plants in solution culture containing low levels of chromium. Plant Physiol. 52:72-75.

Huhta, V. 1979. The use of similarity indices for measuring succession in invertebrate communities. pp. 100-103 In: The Use of Ecological Variables in Environmental Monitoring. The National Swedish Environment Protection Board, Rep. PM 1151.

Hultberg, H. and O. Grahn. 1975. Effects of acid precipitation on macrophytes in oligotrophic lakes. Proc. First Spec. Symposium Atmospheric Contribution to the Chemistry of Lake Waters, Sep 28 - Oct l, 1975. Inter. Assoc. Great Lakes Res.

Hungerford, H.B., P.J. Spangler, and N.A. Walker. 1955. Subaquatic light traps for insects and other aquatic organisms. Trans. Kans. Acad. Sci. 58:387-407.

Hunt, P.C. and J.W. Jones. 1972. The effect of water level fluctuations on a littoral fauna. J. Fish. Biol. 4:385-395.

Hunter, M.L., Jr., J.J. Jones, J.W. Witham, and T.M. Mingo. 1986. Biomass and species richness of aquatic macrophytes in four Maine lakes of different acidity. Aquat. Bot. 24:91-95.

Hunter, W.C., B.W. Anderson, and R.D. Ohmart. 1985. Summer avian community composition of Tamarix habitats in three southwestern desert riparian systems. pp. 128-134 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D.Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Hunter, M.L., Jr., J.J. Jones, K.E. Gibbs, and J.R. Moring. 1986. Duckling responses to lake acidification: Do black ducks and fish compete? Oikos 47:26-32.

Hupp, C.R. 1988. Plant ecological aspects of flood geomorphology and paleoflood history. pp. 335-356 In: V.R. Baker, R.C. Kochel, and P.C. Patton (eds.). Flood Geomorphology. J. Wiley & Sons, New York.

Hupp, C.R. and E.E. Morris. 1990. A dendrogeomorphic approach to measurement of sedimentation in a forested wetland, Black Swamp, Arkansas. Wetlands 10:107-124.

Hurlburt, S.H., M.S. Mulla, and H.R. Willson. 1972. Effects of an organophosphorus insecticide on the phytoplankton, zooplankton, and insect populations of freshwater ponds. Ecol. Monogr. 42:269-299.

Husbands, R.C. 1967. A subsurface light trap for sampling aquatic insect populations. Calif. Vector Views. 14:81-82.

Hutchinson, G.E. 1975. A Treatise on Limnology. Vol. 3: Limnological Botany. John Wiley and Sons, NY. 660 pp.

Hutchinson, T.C. and K.M. Meema (eds.). 1985. Effects of Atmospheric Pollutants on Forests, Wetlands, and Agricultural Ecosystems. Springer-Verlag, N.Y.

Huxley, T.H. 1974. The Crayfish. An introduction to the Study of Zoology. International Scientific Series. 28:371.

Hynes, H.B.N. and U.R. Yadav. 1985. Three decades of post-impoundment data on the littoral fauna of Llyn Tegid, North Wales. Arch. Hydrobiol. 104:39-48.

Isabelle, P.S., L.J. Fooks, P.S. Keddy, and S.D. Wilson. 1987. Effects of roadside snowmelt on wetland vegetation--an experimental study. J. Environ. Manage. 25:57-60.

Isom, B.G. (ed.). Rationale for Sampling and Interpretation of Ecological Data in the Assessment of Freshwater Ecosystems. ASTM STP 894, Amer. Soc. Testing & Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

Ivarson, K.C. 1977. Changes in decomposition rate, microbial population, and carbohydrate content of an acid peat bog after liming and reclamation. Can. J. Soil Sci. 57:129-137.

Jackle, M.D. and T.A. Gatz. 1985. Herpetofaunal use of four habitats of the Middle Gila River drainage, Arizona. pp. 355-358 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Jackson, D.A. and H.H. Harvey. 1989. Biogeographical associations in fish assemblages: local vs. regional processes. Ecol. 70:1472-1484.

Jackson, J.K. and V.H. Resh. 1988. Sequential decision plans in monitoring benthic macroinvertebrates: Cost savings, classification accuracy, and development of plans. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:280-286.

Jackson, S.T. and D.F. Charles. 1988. Aquatic macrophytes in Adirondack (New York) lakes: Patterns of species composition in relation to environment. Can. J. Bot. 66:1449-1460.

Jacobi, G.Z., D.M. Prellwitz, M.R. Headrick, D.F. Sanders, and R.N. Schmal. 1978. The effects of stream channelization on wildlife, fish and benthic macroinvertebrates in the Buena Vista Marsh, Portage County, Wisconsin. pp. 178-191. In: Proc. of the Amer. Water Res. Assoc., Wisconsin Sect., 1978. Water Res. Center, Univ. of WI., Madison, WI.

Jeffries, M. 1989. Measuring Talling's "element of chance in pond populations." Freshw. Biol. 20:383-393.

Jeglum, J.K. 1971. Plant indicators of pH and water level in peatlands at Candle Lake, Saskatchewan. Can. J. Bot. 49:1661-1676.

Jeglum, J.K. 1975. Vegetation - habitat changes caused by damming a peatland drainageway in Northern Ontario. Can. Field-Nat. 89(4):400-412.

Jensen, S. 1979. Classification of lakes in southern Sweden on the basis of their macrophyte composition by means of multivariate analysis. Vegetatio 39:129-146.

Jensen, S., R. Ryel and W.S. Platts. 1989. Classification of riverine/riparian habitat and assessment of nonpoint source impacts North Fork Humboldt River, Nevada. USDA Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station, Boise Fisheries Unit.

Jetter, W. and L.D. Harris. 1976. The effects of perturbation on cypress dome animal communities. pp. 577-653 In: H.T. Odum, K.C. Ewel, J.W. Ordway and M.K. Johnston (eds.). Cypress Wetlands for Water Management, Recycling, and Conservation, Third Ann. Rep. Nat. Sci. Foundation, Center Wetland, Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Jiffry, F. 1984. Loss of freshwater shellfish and some ecological impacts after water drawdown in Lake Sebasticook, Maine. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Maine, Orono.

Jones, R.H. 1981. A classification of lowland forests in the northern coastal plain of South Carolina. M.S. Thesis, Clemson Univ., Clemson, SC.

Jones, R.C. and C.C. Clark. 1987. Impact of watershed urbanization on stream insect communities. Water Resources Bull. 23(6):1047-1055.

Jongman, R.H., C.J.F. ter Braak, and O.F.R. van Tongeren. 1987. Data Analysis in Community and Landscape Ecology. Pudoc Wageningen Publishing, Netherlands.

Johnson, F.A. and F. Montalbano. 1984. Selection of plant communities by wintering waterfowl on Lake Okeechobee, Florida. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:174-178.

Johnson, F.L. and D.T. Bell. 1976. Tree growth and mortality in the streamside forest. Castanea 43:34-41.

Johnson, M.G. and O.C. McNeil. 1988. Fossil midge associations in relation to trophic and acidic state of the Turkey Lakes. Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45(1):136-144.

Johnson, W.W. and M.T. Finley. 1980. Handbook of Acute Toxicity of Chemicals to Fish and Aquatic Invertebrates. Resour. Pub. 137, U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1956. Effects of water fluctuation and vegetation change on bird populations, particularly waterfowl. Ecol. 37:689-701.

Jones, D.W., M.J. McElligott, and R.H. Mannz. 1985. Summary of Biological, Chemical, and Morphological Characterizations of 33 Surface-Mine Lakes in Illinois and Missouri. pp. 211-238 In: R.P. Brooks, D.E. Samuel, and J.B. Hill (eds.). Wetlands and Water Management on Mined Lands. Penn. St. Univ., University Park, PA.

Jones, J.J. and R.D. Drobney. 1986. Winter feeding ecology of Scaup and Common Goldeneye in Michigan. J. Wildl. Manage. 50:446-452.

Jones, K.B. 1986. Amphibians and Reptiles, pp. 267-290 In: A.Y. Cooperrider, R.J. Boyd, and H.R. Stuart. Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Denver, CO.

Jones, K.B. and P.C. Glinski. 1985. Microhabitats of lizards in a southwestern riparian community. pp. 341-346 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Jones, J.C., J.F. Hancock, and E.H. Liu. 1979. Biochemical and morphological effects of temperature on Typha latifolia originating from different ends of a thermal gradient. I. Controlled environmental studies. Amer. J. Bot. 66:902-906.

Jones, D.W., M.J. McElligott, and R.H. Mannz. 1985. Summary of Biological, Chemical, and Morphological Characterizations of 33 Surface-Mine Lakes in Illinois and Missouri. pp. 211-238 In: R.P. Brooks, D.E. Samuel, and J.B. Hill (eds.). Wetlands and Water Management on Mined Lands. Penn. St. Univ., University Park, PA.

Josselyn, M., M. Martindale, and J. Duffield. 1989. Public Access and Wetlands: Impacts of Recreational Use. Tech. Rep. 9. Romberg Tiburon Centers, Center for Environ. Stud., San Francisco St. Univ., Tiburon, CA. 56 pp.

Kadlec, R.H. 1979. Monitoring report on the Bellaire wastewater treatment facility. Utilization Rep. No. 4, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 48 pp.

Kadlec, R.H. 1979. Wetland tertiary treatment at Houghton Lake, Michigan. pp. 101-139 In: Bastian, R.K. and S.C. Reed (eds.). Aquaculture Systems for Wastewater Treatment: Seminar Proceedings and Engineering Assessment. U.S. Environ. Protect. Agency, Off. Water Program Oper., Municipal Construction Div., Washington, D.C., EPA 430/9-80-006.

Kadlec, J.A. 1984. Hydrology. pp. 8-11 In: Murkin, E.J. and H.R. Murkin (eds.). Marsh Ecology Research Program: Long-term Monitoring Procedures Manual. Tech. Bull. 2. Delta Waterfowl Research Station, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, Canada.

Kadlec, R.H. 1988. Monitoring wetland responses. pp. 114-120 In: J. Zelazny and J.S. Feierabend (eds.). Increasing Our Wetland Resources. National Wildlife Federation, Washington, D.C.

Kadlec, R.H. 1990. Wetlands and wastewater: vegetation response. Proceedings of the Conference on Wetland Ecology, Savannah River Ecology Lab., Aiken, SC.

Kadlec, R.H. and F.B. Bevis. 1990. Wetlands and wastewater: Kinross, Michigan. Wetlands 10:77-92.

Kadlec, R.H. and D.E. Hammer. 1980. Wetland Utilization for Management of Community Wastewater, Houghton Lake Wetlands Treatment Project. Report to the National Science Foundation, Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor. 83 pp.

Kadlec, R.H. and D.E. Hammer. 1985. Simplified computation of wetland vegetation cycles. pp. 101-139. In: D'Itri, F.M. and H. Prince (eds.). Coastal Wetlands. Lewis Publ., Inc., Chelsea, MI.

Kaiser, M.S., and E.K. Fritzell. 1984. Effects of river recreationists on Green-backed Heron behavior. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:561-568.

Kallemeyn, L.S. and J.F. Novotny. 1977. Fish and fish food organisms in various habitats of the Missouri River in South Dakota, Nebraska and Iowa. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. FWS/OBS-77/25.IX + 100 pp., Washington, D.C.

Kaminski, R.M. and H.H. Prince. 1981. Dabbling duck and aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to manipulated wetland habitat. J. Wildl. Manage. 45(1):1-15.

Kaminski, R.M. and H.R. Murkin. 1981. Evaluation of two devices for sampling nektonic invertebrates. J. Wildl. Manage. 45:493-496.

Kansas Biological Survey and Kansas Geological Survey. 1987. Cheyenne Bottoms: An Environmental Assessment. Univ. of Kansas, Topeka.

Kantrud, H.A. 1986. Effects of Vegetation Manipulation on Breeding Waterfowl in Prairie Wetlands -- A Literature Review. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Tech. Rep. 3. 15 pp.

Kantrud, H.A. and R.E. Stewart. 1977. Use of natural basin wetlands by breeding waterfowl in North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 41:243-253.

Kantrud, H.A. and R.E. Stewart. 1984. Ecological distribution and crude density of breeding birds on prairie wetlands. J. Wildl. Manage. 48(2):432-437.

Kantrud, H.A., G.L. Krapu, and G.A. Swanson. 1989. Prairie Basin Wetlands of the Dakotas: A Community Profile. Biol. Rep. 85(7.28). U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Washington, D.C. 111 pp.

Kaplan, R.H. 1981. Temporal heterogeneity of habitats in relation to amphibian ecology. pp. 143-154 In: S. Jain and P. Moyle (eds.). Vernal Pools and Intermittent Streams. Institute of Ecol., Univ. of Calif., Davis, Pub. No. 28.

Karlin, E.F. 1985. The vegetation of the low-shrub bogs of northern New Jersey and adjacent New York: Ecosystems at their southern limit. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 112(4):436-444.

Karlin, E.F. and L.M. Lynn. 1988. Dwarf-shrub bogs of the southern Catskill Mountain region of New York State: Geographic changes in the flora of peatlands in northern New Jersey and southern New York. Bull. of the Torrey Bot. Club 115(3):209-217.

Karns, D.R. 1979. The relationship of amphibians and reptiles to peatland habitats in Minnesota. Final Report to Peat Program. Minnesota Dept. of Nat. Res. 84 pp.

Karr, J.R. 1981. Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities. Fisheries 6(6):21-27.

Karr, J.R. 1987. Biological monitoring and environmental assessment: A conceptual framework. Environ. Manage. 11(2):249-25.

Kauskik, I.K. 1963. The influence of salinity on the growth and rejuvenation of marsh plants. Ph.D. Diss., Utah State Univ., Logan, UT. 123 pp.

Keddy, P.A. 1989. Effects of competition from shrubs on herbaceous wetland plants: a 4-year field experiment. Can. J. Bot. 67:708-716.

Kelly, J.R. and M.A. Harwell. 1989. Indicators of ecosystem response and recovery. pp. 9-35 In: S.A. Levin, M.A. Harwell, J.R. Kelly, and K.D. Kimball. Ecotoxicology: Problems and Approaches. Springer-Verlag, New York, NY.

Kelso, J.R.M., R.J. Love, J.H. Lipsit, and R. Dermott. 1982. Chemical and biological status of headwater lakes in the Sault Ste. Marie district, Ontario. In: F.M. D'Itri (ed.), Acid Precipitation--Effects on Ecological Systems.

Kennedy, H.E. 1970. Growth of newly planted water tupelo seedlings after flooding and siltation. Forest Sci. 16:250-256.

Kenow, K.P. and D.H. Rusch. 1989. An evaluation of plant and invertebrate response to water level manipulation of subimpoundments of Horicon Marsh, Wisconsin. pp. 1153-1165 In: R.R. Sharitz and J.W. Gibbons (eds.). Freshwater Wetlands and Wildlife, Proceedings of a Symposium. CONF-8603101 (NTIS No. DE90005384). U.S. Dept. Energy, Oak Ridge, TN.

Kerekes, J., B. Freedman, G. Howell, and P. Clifford. 1984. Comparison of the characteristics of an acidic eutrophic and an acidic oligotrophic lake near Halifax, Nova Scotia. Water Pollut. Res. J. Can. 19:1-10.

Kibby, H.V., J.L. Gallagher, and W.D. Sanville. 1980. Field Guide to Evaluate Net Primary Production of Wetlands. U.S. Environ. Protection Agency, Environ. Res. Lab, Corvallis, OR. EPA-600/8-80-037, 59 pp.

Kimerle, R.A., W.E. Gledhill, and J.V. Levinskas. 1978. Environmental safety assessment of new materials. pp. 132-146 In: J. Cairns, K.L. Dickson, and A.W. Maki (eds.). Estimating the Hazard of Chemical Substances to Aquatic Life. ASTM STP 657. Amer. Soc. for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, PA.

Kimerle, R.A and N.H. Anderson. 1967. Evaluation of aquatic insect emergence traps. J. Econ. Ent. 60:1255-1259.

Kimerle, R.A. and W.R. Enns. 1968. Aquatic insects associated with midwestern waste stabilization lagoons. J. Water Poll. Control Fed.40:R31-R41.

Kimble, L.A., and T.A. Wesche. 1965. Relationships between selected physical parameters and benthic community structure in a small mountain stream. Water Resour. Res. Inst., Water Resour. Ser. No. 55. 65 pp.

Kirby, R.E. 1980. Waterfowl production estimates on forested wetlands from pair and brood counts. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 8(4):273-278.

Klett, A. T., T. L. Shaffer, and D. H. Johnson. 1988. Duck nest success in the prairie pothole region. J. Wildl. Manage. 52:431-440.

Klimas, C.V., C. O. Martin, and J.W. Teaford. 1981. Impacts of flooding regime modification on wildlife habitats of bottomland hardwood forests of the Lower Mississippi Valley. Tech. Rep. EL-81-13. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Exp.Sta., Vicksburg, MS. 63 pp.

Klimas, C.V. 1987. Baldcypress response to increased water levels, Caddo Lake, Louisiana-Texas. Wetlands 7:25-37.

Klimas, C.V. 1988. Forest Vegetation of the Leveed Floodplain of the Lower Mississippi River. U.S. Army Corps of Engr., Mississippi River Commission, Lower Mississippi River Environ. Prog., Rep. 11. Vicksburg, MS.

Klimowicz, H. 1959. Tentative classification of small water bodies on the basis of the differentiation of the molluscan fauna. Polskie Archwm. Hydrobiol. 6:85-104.

Klosowski, S. 1985. Habitat requirements and bioindicator value of the main communities of aquatic vegetation in north-east Poland. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii 32(1):7-29.

Knight, R.L., and S.K. Knight. 1984. Responses of wintering bald eagles to boating activity. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:999-1004.

Knight, R.L., B.H. Winchester, and J.C. Higman. 1985. Ecology, hydrology, and advanced wastewater treatment potential of an artificial wetland in north-central Florida. Wetlands 5:167-180.

Knighton, M.D. 1985. Vegetation management in water impoundments: water level control. pp. 51-60 In: M.D. Knighton (ed.). Water Impoundments for Wildlife: A Habitat Management Workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-100, USDA Forest Serv., St. Paul, MN.

Knopf, F.L. 1985. Signifiance of riparian vegetation to breeding birds across an altitudinal cline. pp. 105-111 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords). Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Ft. Collins, CO.

Kofron, C.P. and A.A. Schreiber. 1987. Observations on aquatic turtles in a northeastern Missouri marsh. SW Nat. 32(4):517-521.

Kohler, V.A., R. Wonneberger, and G. Zeltner. 1973. chemical data and aquatic vascular plants as indicators for pollution in the Moosach river system near Munich. Arch Hydrobiol 72(4):533-54.

Kondolf, G.M., J.W. Webb, M.J. Sale, and T. Felando. 1987. Basin hydrologic studies for assessing impacts of flow diversions on riparian vegetation: Examples from streams of the Eastern Sierra Nevada, California. Envir. Manage. 11:757-769.

Koponen, S. 1979. Differences of Spider Fauna in Natural and Man-made Habitats in a Raised Bog. pp. 104-108 In: The Use of Ecological Variables in Environmental Monitoring. Rep. PM 1151. The Nat. Swedish Environ. Protection Board.

Korinkova, J. 1971. Sampling and distribution of animals in submerged vegetation. Vest. CSI. Zool. Spol. 3:208-211.

Korschgen, C. E., L.S. George, and W.L. Green. 1985. Disturbance of diving ducks by boaters on a migrational stageing area. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 13:290-296.

Krantzberg, G. and P.M. Stokes. 1989. Metal regulation, tolerance, and body burdens in the larvae of the genus Chironomus. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46:389-398.

Krapu, G.L., D.R. Parsons, and M.W. Weller. 1970. Waterfowl in relation to land use and water levels on the Spring Run area. Iowa St. J. Sci. 44:437-452.

Kraus, M.L. 1989. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in pre-fledgling tree swallows. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 43:407-414.

Kraus, M.L. and D.B. Kraus. 1986. Differences in the effect of mercury on predator avoidance in two populations of the Grass Shrimp. Mar. Environ. Res. 18:277-289.

Krebs, C.J. 1989. Ecological Methodology. Harper and Row Publishers, New York. 654 pp.

Krecker, F.H. 1939. A comparative study of the animal population of certain submerged aquatic plants. Ecology 20:553-562.

Krell, K.Y. 1986. Comparison of waterfowl use and invertebrate abundance on constructed and natural wetlands in North Dakota. Univ. North Dakota, Fargo. 286 pp.

Kreis, R.D. and W.C. Johnson. 1968. The response of macrobenthos to irrigation return water. J. Water Pollut. Contr. Fed. 40: 1614-1621.

Krieger, K.A. 1984. Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of environmental degradation in the southern nearshore zone of the central basin of Lake Erie. J. Great Lakes Res. 10:197-129.

Krueger, H.O., J.P. Ward, and S.H. Anderson. 1988. A resource manager's guide for using aquatic organisms to assess water quality for evaluation of contaminants. Biol. Rep. 88(20). Fish & Wildl. Serv., U.S. Dept. Interior, Washington, D.C.

Krull, J.N. 1970. Aquatic plant-macroinvertebrate associations and waterfowl. J. Wildl. Manage. 34(4):707-718.

Kullberg, R.G. 1974. Distribution of aquatic macrophytes related to paper mill effluents in a southern Michigan stream. Amer. Midl. Nat. 91(2):271-281.

Kusnetsov, S.I. 1970. Distribution of bacteria in lakes. In: S.I. Kusnetsov (ed.). The Microflora of Lakes and Its Geochemical Activity. Nauka Publishing House, Leningrad, USSR.

Kushlan, J.A. 1974a. Effects of a natural fish kill on the water quality, plankton, and fish population of a pond in the Big Cypress Swamp, Florida. Trans. Amer. Fish Soc. 2:235-243.

Kushlan, J.A. 1974b. Quantitative sampling of fish populations in shallow freshwater environments. Trans. N. Amer. Fish. Soc. 103:348-352.

Kushlan, J.A. 1976. Environmental stability and fish community composition. Ecol. 57:821-825.

Kusler, J.A. and P. Riexinger (eds.). 1986. Proceedings of the National Wetland Assessment Symposium. Assoc. State Wetland Managers, Berne, N.Y. 331 pp.

Kwak, T.J. 1988. Lateral movement and use of floodplain habitat by fishes of the Kankakee River, Illinois. Amer. Midl. Nat. 120(2):241-149.

LaBaugh, J.W. 1986. Wetland ecosystem studies from a hydrologic perspective. Water Resour. Bull. 22(1):1-10.

LaBaugh, J.W. and G.A. Swanson. 1988. Algae and invertebrates in the water column of selected prairie wetlands in the Cottonwood Lake area, Stutsman County, North Dakota, 1984. U.S. Geol. Surv. Open-file Report 88-451. 96 pp.

Lachavanne, J.-B. 1985. The influence of accelerated eutrophication on the macrophytes of Swiss lakes: abundance and distribution. Verh. Int. Theor. Appl. Limnol. 22:2950-2955.

Lafont, M. 1984. Oligochaete communities as biological descriptors of pollution in the fine sediments of rivers. Hydrobiologia 115:127-129.

Lambing, J.H., W.E. Jones, and J.W. Stuphin. 1988. Reconnaissance Investigation of Water Quality, Bottom Sediment, and Biota Associated with Irrigation Drainage in Bowdoin National Wildlife Refuge and Adjacent Areas of the Milk River Basin, Northeastern Montana. US Geological Surv., Reston, VA.

Lammers, R. 1977. Sampling insects with a wetland emergence trap: Design and evaluation of the trap with preliminary results. Amer. Midl. Nat. 97:381-389.

Landin, M.C. 1985. Bird and Mammal Use of Selected Lower Mississippi River Borrow Pits. Ph.D. Diss., Mississippi State Univ., 405 pp.

Landres, P.B., J. Verner, and J.W. Thomas. 1988. Ecological uses of vertebrate indicator species: A critique. Conserv. Biol. 2:316-328.

Lantz, K.E., J.T. Orvis, J.S. Hughes and H.E. Schaffer. 1965. Water level fluctuation -- its effect on vegetation control and fish population management. Proc. Ann. Conf. Southeast Assoc. Game Fish Comm. 25:570-583.

La Point, T.W. and J.A. Perry. 1989. Use of experimental ecosystems in regulatory decsion making. Envir. Manage. 13:539-544.

Larsen, V.J. and H.H. Schierup. 1981. Macrophyte cycling of zinc, copper, lead and cadmium in the littoral zone of a polluted and a non-polluted lake: Seasonal changes in heavy metal content of above-ground biomass and decomposed leaves. Aquat. Bot. 9:

Lassen, J.J. 1975. The diversity of freshwater snails in view of the equilibrium theory of island biogeography. Oecologia 19:1-8.

Lathwell, D.J., R. Bouldin, and E.A. Goyette. 1973. Growth and chemical composition of aquatic plants in twenty artificial wildlife marshes. N.Y. Fish Game J. 20:108-146.

Lawrence, J.S., W.D. Kilmstra, W.G. O'Leary, and G.A. Perkins. 1985. Contribution of surface-mined wetlands to selected avifauna in Illinois. pp. 317-326 In: R.P. Brooks, D.E. Samuel, and J.B. Hill (eds.). Wetlands and Water Management on Mined Lands. Penn. St. Univ., University Park.

Lauritsen, D.D., S.C. Mazley, and D.S. White. 1985. Distribution of oligochaetes in Lake Michigan and comments on their use as indices of pollution. J. Great Lakes Res. 11:67-76.

Leavitt, S.W. and A. Long. 1989. Drought indicated in carbon- 13/carbon-12 ratios of southwestern tree rings. Water Res. Bull. 25(2):341-347.

Leck, M.A. and K.J. Graveline. 1979. The seed bank of a freshwater tidal marsh. Amer. J. Botany 66:1006-1015.

Lee, D.S., C.R. Gilbert, C.H. Hocutt, R.E. Jenkins, D.E. McAllister, and J.R. Stauffer, Jr. 1980. Atlas of North American Freshwater Fishes. U.S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C. 854 pp.

Lee, R.L., R.K. Peddicord, B.L. Folsom, and J.G. Skogerboe. 1987. The use of bioassay and associated tests in dredged material and disposal management. Hydrobiologia 149:81-86.

Legner, E.F., R.A. Medved, and R.D. Sjogren. 1975. Quantitative water column sampler for insects in shallow aquatic habitats. Proc. Calif. Mosquito Contr. Assoc. 43:110-115.

Leidy, R.A. and P.L. Fiedler. 1985. Human disturbance and patterns of fish species diversity in the San Francisco Bay Drainage, California. Biol. Conserv. 33:247-267.

Leivestad, H., G. Hendrey, I.P. Munoz, and E. Snekvik. 1976. Effects of acid precipitation on freshwater organisms. pp. 87-111 In: F.H. Braekke (ed.). Impact of Acid Precipitation on Forest and Freshwater Ecosystems of Norway. Res. Rep. 6/76. SNSF Project.

Leland, H.V., S.V. Fend, T.L. Dudley, and J.L. Carter. 1989. Effects of copper on species composition of benthic insects in a Sierra Nevada, California, stream. Freshw. Biol. 21:163-179.

Lemlich, S. and K. Ewel. 1984. Effects of wastewater disposal on growth rates of cypress trees. J. Environ. Qual. 13(4):602-604.

Letterman, R.D. and W.J. Mitsch. 1978. Impact of mine drainage on a mountain stream in Pennsylvania. Envir. Pollut. 17:53-73.

Leuven, R.S.E.W., C. den Hartog, M.M.C. Christiaans, and W.H.C. Heiligers. 1986. Effects of water acidification on the distribution pattern and the reproductive success of amphibians. Experientia 42:495-503.

Levins, S. 1973. The qualitative analysis of partially-specified systems. Annals New York Acad. Sci. 231:123-138.

Lewis, W.M., R.C. Heidinger, M.H. Paller, and L.J. Wawronowicz. 1981. Effects of municipal sewage on fish communities in selected Illinois streams. pp. 224-240 In: L. Krumholz (ed.). Warmwater Streams Symposium, Amer. Fish. Soc.

Liddle, M.J. and H.R.A. Scorgie. 1980. The effects of recreation on fresh-water plants and animals: A review. Biol. Conserv. 17:183-206.

Lieffers, V.J. 1984. Emergent plant communities of oxbow lakes in north eastern Alberta: Salinity, water-level fluctuation, and succession. Can. J. Bot. 62:310-316.

Lind, C.T. and G. Cottam. 1969. The submerged aquatics of University Bay: A study in eutrophication. Amer. Midl. Nat. 81:353-369.

Liston, C.R. and S. Chubb. 1984. Relations of water level fluctuations and fish. pp. 121-140 In: H.H. Prince and F.M. D'Itri (eds.) Coastal Wetlands. Lewis Pub., Inc., Chelsea, MI.

Littlefield, C.D. and S.P. Thompson. 1989. Response to commentary on winter habitat preferences of Northern Harriers. Oregon Birds 15(3):202.

Lloyd, D.S., J.P. Koenings and J.D. LaPerriere. 1987. Effects of turbidity in fresh waters of Alaska. N. Amer. J. of Fish. Man. 7:18-33.

Lokemoen, J.T. 1973. Waterfowl production on stock-watering ponds in the Northern Plains. Northern Prairie Wildl. Res. Center, U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Jamestown, ND. J. Range Manage. 26(3):179-184.

Lonard, R.I., E.J. Clairain Jr., R.T. Huffman, J.W. Hardy, L.D. Brown, P.E. Ballard, and J.W. Watts. 1981. Analysis of methodologies used for the assessment of wetlands values. U.S. Water Resour. Council, Washington, D. C. 68 p.

Loveland, D.G. and I.A. Ungar. 1983. The effect of nitrogen fertilization on the production of halophytes in an inland salt marsh. Amer. Midl. Nat. 109(2):346-354.

Lowe, E.F., J.E. Brooks, C.J. Fall, L.R. Gerry, and G.B. Hall. 1984. U.S. EPA Clean Lakes Program, Phase I Diagnostic-Feasibility Study of the upper St. Johns River chain of lakes, Volume 1 - Diagnostic Study. Tech. Pub. SJ 84-15, St. Johns River Water Manage. Dist., Palatka, FL. 118 pp.

Lowery, D.R., M.P. Taylor, R.L. Warden, and F.H. Taylor. 1987. Fish and Benthic Communities of Eight Lower Mississippi River Floodplain Lakes. U.S. Army Corps of Engr., Mississippi River Commission, Lower Mississippi River Environ. Prog. Rep. 6. Vicksburg, MS. 299 pp.

Loyacano, H. 1967. Some effects of salinity on two populations of Red Swamp Crawfish. pp. 423-434 In: Proc. 21st Ann. Conf. SE Assoc. Game and Fish Commissions.

Ludwig, J.A. and J.F. Reynolds. 1988. Statistical Ecology: A Primer on Methods and Computing. J. Wiley & Sons, New York. 337 pp.

Lugo, A.E. 1978. Stress and ecosystems. pp. 62-101 In: J.H. Thorp and J.W. Gibbons (eds.). Energy and Environmental Stress in Aquatic Systems. DOE Sympos. Ser. CONF-771114. NTIS, Springfield, VA.

Lyons, J. 1989. Changes in the abundance of small littoral-zone fishes in Lake Mendota, Wisconsin. Can. J. Zool. 67:2910-2916.

Macan, T.T. 1949. Survey of sampling the bottom fauna in stony streams. Ver. Int. Theor. Angew. Limnol. 8:1-21.

Macan, T.T. 1977. The fauna in the vegetation of a moorland fishpond as revealed by different methods of collecting. Hydrobiologia 55:3-15.

Macan, T.T. and A. Kitching. 1972. Some experiments with artificial substrata. Verh. Int. Theor. Angew. Limnol. 18:213-20.

Mack, G.D. and L.D. Flake. 1980. Habitat relationships of waterfowl broods on South Dakota stock ponds.J. Wildl. Manage. 44:695-700.

Mackay, G.L. and S.V. Qadri. 1971. A quantitative sampler for aquatic phytomacrofauna. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 28:1322-1324.

Mader, S.F., W.M. Aust, and R. Lea. 1988. Changes in Net Primary Productivity and Cellulose Decomposition Rates in a Water Tupelo -Bald Cypress Swamp Following Timber Harvest. Fifth Biennial S. Silvicul. Res. Confer., NCASI, Corvallis, OR.

Madsen, J.D. and M.S. Adams. 1989. The distribution of submerged aquatic macrophyte biomass in a eutrophic stream, Badfish Creek: the effect of environment. Hydrobiologia 171:111-119.

Maeda, S., T. Kumamoto, M. Yonemoto, S. Nakajima, and T. Takeshita. 1983. Bioaccumulation of arsenic by freshwater algae and the application to the removal of inorganic arsenic from an aqueous phase.Part I. Kagoshima Univ., Japan, Dept. of Applied Chemistry, Separation Sci. Tech. 18(4):375-385.

Magurran, A.E. 1988. Ecological Diversity and Its Measurement. Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, NJ. 179 pp.

Mahanty, H.K. 1975. A study of the effects of polychlorinated biphenyl on an aquatic plant--Spirodela oligorhiza. Bull. Envir. Contam. Toxicol. 14:558-561.

Mahoney, D.L. 1977. Species richness and diversity of aquatic vascular plants in Nebraska with special reference to water quality parameters. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of Nebraska-Lincoln. 38 pp.

Maki, T.E., D.W. Hazel, and A.J. Weber. 1980. Effects of Stream Channelization on Bottomland and Swamp Forest Ecosystems. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC. 66 pp. (NTIS PB-269 021/2St).

Malecki, R.A. and J.D. Sullivan. 1987. Assessment of an agricultural drainage improvement program in New York State. J. Soil Water Conserva. 42:271-276.

Malecki, R.A., J.R. Lassoie, E. Rieger, and T. Seamans. 1983. Effects of long-term artificial flooding on a northern bottomland hardwood forest community. Forest Sci. 29:535-544.

Mall, R.E. 1969. Soil-water-plant Relationships of Waterfowl Food Plants in the Suisun Marsh of California. Wildl. Bull. No. 1, Calif. Dept. Fish & Game, Sacramento. 59 pp.

Mallik, A.U. and R.W. Wein. 1986. Response of a Typha marsh community to draining, flooding, and seasonal burning. Can. J. Bot. 64:2136-2143.

Madenjian, C.P., G.L. Rogers, and A.W. Fast. 1990. Estimation of whole pond respiration rate. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:682-686.

Marchant, R. 1982a. Seasonal variation in the macroinvertebrate fauna of billabongs along Magela Creek, Northern Territory. Aust. J. Mar. Freshwater Res. 33:329-342.

Markham, B.J. and S. H. Brechtel. 1979. Status and management of three colonial waterbird species in Alberta. Proc. 1978 Conf. Colonial Waterbird Group 2:55-64.

Marsh, P.C. and J.E. Luey. 1982. Oases for aquatic life within agricultural watersheds. Fisheries 7:16-19.

Marshall, W.H. and M.E. Buell. 1955. A study of the occurrence of amphibians in relation to a bog succession, Itasca State Park, Minnesota. Ecol. 36(3):381-387.

Mathis, D.B., S.P. Cobb, L.G. Sanders, A.D. Magoun, and C.R. Bingham. 1981. Aquatic Habitat Studies on the Lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Rep. 3. Environ. Lab. U.S. Army Engr. Waterw. Expt.Stn., Vicksburg, MS. Misc. Papers E-80-1. 83 pp.

Martin, R.G. and J.V. Shireman. 1976. A quantitative sampling method for hydrilla-inhabiting macroinvertebrates. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 14:16-19.

Matthews, R.A., A.L. Buikema, and J. Cairns,Jr. 1982. Biological monitoring. Part IIA: Receiving system functional methods, relationships, and indices. Water Res. 16:129-139.

McAuley, D.G. and J.R. Longcore. 1988. Survival of juvenile Ring-Necked Ducks on wetlands of different pH. J. Wildl. Manage. 52(2):169-176.

McCabe, T. 1982. Muskrat population levels and vegetation utilization: a basis for an index. Ph.D. Diss., Utah State Univ., Logan. 127 pp. MA

McCauley, V.J.E. 1976a. Efficiency of a trap for catching and retaining insects emerging from standing water. Oikos 27:339-346.

McCauley, V.J.E. 1976b. Two new quantitative samplers for aquatic phytomacrofauna. Hydrobiologia 47:81-89.

McConnell, D.L. and D.E. Samuel. 1985. Small mammal and avian populations utilizing cattail marshes on reclaimed surface mines in West Virginia. pp. 329-336 In: R.P. Brooks, D.E. Samuel, and J.B. Hill (eds.). Wetlands and Water Management on Mined Lands. Penn. St. Univ., University Park, PA.

McCormick, P.V., P.M. Stewart, and J. Cairns,Jr. 1987. Effect of distance from a source pool on protozoan colonization of isolated aquatic systems. J. Freshw. Ecol. 4:1-15.

McElravy, E.P., G.A. Lamberti, and V.H. Resh. 1989. Year-to-year variation in the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna of a northern California stream. J. N. Amer. Benthol. Soc. 8:51-63.

McIntosh, A.W., B.K. Shephard, R.A. Mayes, G.J. Atchison, and D.W. Nelson. 1978. Some aspects of sediment distribution and macrophyte cycling of heavy metals in a contaminated lake. J. Environ. Qual. 7:301-305.

McIntyre, S., P.Y. Ladiges, and G. Adams. 1988. Plant species-richness and invasion by exotics in relation to disturbance of wetland communities on the Riverine Plain, NSW. Australian J. Ecol. 13:361-373.

McKee, K.L. and I.A. Mendelssohn. 1989. Response of a freshwater marsh plant community to increased salinity and increased water level. Aquat. Bot. 34:301-316.

McLachlan, A.J. 1970. Some effects of annual fluctuations in water level on the larval chironmid communities of Lake Kariba. J. Anim. Ecol. 39:79-90.

McLachlan, A.J. 1975. The role of aquatic macrophytes in the recovery of the benthic fauna of a trophic lake after a dry phase. Limnol. Oceanog. 20(1):54-63.

McLachlan, A.J. 1985. What determines the species present in a rain-pool? Oikos 45:1-7.

McLay, C.L. 1976. The effect of pH on the population growth of three species of duckweed: Spirodela oligorhiza, Lemna minor, and Wolffia arrhiza. Freshw. Biol. 6:125-136.

McMahan, E.A. and L. Davis, Jr. 1978. Density and diversity of microarthropods in wastewater treated and untreated cypress domes. pp. 429-462. In: Odum, H.T. and K.C. Ewel (eds.). Cypress Wetlands for Water Management, Recycling and Conservation. Fourth Ann. Rep., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL.

McNaught, D.C. and M.W. Fenlon. 1972. The effects of thermal effluents upon secondary production. Ver. Int. Theor. Angew. Limnol. Verh. 18:204-212.

McNaughton, S.J. 1966. Ecotype function in the Typha community type. Ecol. Monogr. 36:297-325.

McNaughton, S.J., T.C. Folsom, T. Lee, F. Park, C. Price, D. Roeder, J. Schmitz, and C. Stockwell. 1974. Heavy metal tolerance in Typha latifolia without the evolution of tolerant races. Ecol. 55(5):1163-1165.

McNichol, D.K., B.E. Bendell, and D.G. McAuley. 1987. Avian trophic relationships and wetland acidity. Trans. 52nd. N. A. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conf. 619-627.

McWilliam, J.R., B.D.H. Latter, and M.J. Mathison. 1969. Enhanced heterosis and stability in the growth of an interspecific Phalaris hybrid at high temperatures. Aust. J. Biol. Sci. 22:493-504.

Meador, M.R. and J.S. Bulak. 1987. Quantifiable ichthyoplankton sampling in congested shallow-water areas. J. Freshw. Ecol. 4:65-69.

Meehan-Martin, P.J. and D. Swanson. 1988. Pacific Avenue Interchange , SR 5. Wetland Monitoring Report. Washington State Dept. Trans. Environ. Unit, Olympia. Job # L-6941. 12 pp.

Meehan-Martin, P.J. and D. Swanson. 1988. North Creek Bridge 527/108 Replacement, SR 527. Wetland Monitoring Report. Washington State Dept. Trans. Environ. Unit, Olympia. Job # L-8599. 12 pp.

Meehan-Martin, P.J. and D. Swanson. 1988. Columbia Avenue/Marysville to SR 9, SR 528. Wetland Monitoring Report. Washington State Dept. Trans. Environ. Unit, Olympia. Job # L-8108. 10 pp.

Meehan-Martin, P.J. and D. Swanson. 1989. West Hoquiam Connection Willapa Bay, SR-109. Wash State Dept. Trans. Environ. Unit, Job # L-6504. 11 pp.

Meeks, R.L. 1969. The effect of drawdown date on wetland plant succession. J. Wildl. Manage.

Meffe, G.K. and A.L. Sheldon. 1990. Post-defaunation recovery of fish assemblages in southeastern blackwater streams. Ecol. 7:657-667.

Menzel, B.W., J.B. Barnum, and L.M. Antosch. 1984. Ecological alterations of Iowa prairie-agricultural streams. Iowa State J. of Research 59(1):5-30.

Menzie, C.A. 1980. The chironomid (Insecta: Diptera) and other fauna of a Myriophyllum spicatum plant bed in the lower Hudson river. Estuaries 3(1):38-54.

Merezhko, A.I. 1973. Role of higher aquatic plants in the self-purification of lakes and streams. Hydrobiol. J. 9:103-109.

Metcalf, J.L., M.E. Fox, and J.H. Carey. 1984. Aquatic leeches (Hirudinea) as bioindicators of organic chemical contaminants in freshwater ecosystems. Chemosphere 13(1):143-150.

Meyer, J.L. and C. Johnson. 1983. The influence of elevated nitrate concentration on rate of leaf decomposition in a stream. Freshw. Biol. 13:177-183.

Michener, M.C. 1983. Wetland site index for summarizing botanical studies. Wetlands 3:180-191.

Mika, J.S., K.A. Frost, and W.A. Feder. 1985. The impact of land-applied incinerator ash residue on a freshwater wetland plant community. Environ. Pollut. 38:339-360.

Mikol, G.F. 1985. Effects of mechanical control of aquatic vegetation on biomass, regrowth rates, and juvenile fish populations at Saratoga Lake, New York. Lake Reservoir Manage. 2:456-466.

Milbrink, G. 1978. Indicator communities of oligochaetes in Scandinavian lakes. Verh. Inter. Verein. Limnol. 20:2406-2411.

Millar, J.B. 1973. Vegetation changes in shallow marsh wetlands under improving moisture regime. Can. J. Bot. 51:1443-1457.

Millar, J.B. 1976. Wetland Classification in Western Canada. Can. Wildl. Serv. Rep. Ser. No. 37. 38 pp.

Miller, A.C., D.C. Beckett, C.M. Way, and E.J. Bacon. 1989. The Habitat Value of Aquatic Macrophytes for Macroinvertebrates. Tech. Rep. A-89-3. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Exp. Stn., Vicksburg, MS. 96 pp.

Milligan, D.A. 1985. The ecology of avian use of urban freshwater wetlands in King County, Washington. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Wash., Seattle.

Minkley, W.L. 1963. The ecology of a spring stream, Doe Run, Meade County, Kentucky. Wildl. Monogr. 2:1-124.

Minto, M.L. 1977. A sampling device for the invertebrate fauna of aquatic vegetation. Freshw. Biol. 7:425-430.

Minton, S.A., Jr. 1968. The fate of amphibians and reptiles in a suburban area. J. Herperology 2(3-4):113-116.

Miranda, L.E., W.L. Shelton, and T.D. Bryce. 1984. Effects of water level manipulation on abundance, mortality, and growth of young-of-the-year largemouth bass in West Point Reservoir, Alabama - Georgia. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 4:314-320.

Mitsch, W. J., C. L. Dorge, and J. R. Weimhoff. 1979. Ecosystem dynamics and a phosphorus budget of an alluvial cypress swamp in southern Illinois. Ecology 60:1116-1124.

Mittelbach, G.G. 1981. Patterns of invertebrate size and abundance in aquatic habitats. Can. J. of Fish. and Aquatic Sci. 38:896-904.

Mittelman, A., J. Settel, K. Plourd, R.S. Fulton, III, G. Sun, S. Chaube, and P. Sheehan. 1987. Ecological endpoint selection criteria. Technical Resources, Inc., Contract # 68-024199. U.S. Environ. Protection Agency, Exposure Assess. Group, Off. Res. & Dev., Washington, D.C. 158 pp.

Moeller, R.E. 1975. Hydrophyte biomass and community structure in a small, oligotrophic New Hampshire lake. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 19:1004-1012.

Moore, D.R.J. and P.A. Keddy. 1988. Effects of a water-depth gradient on the germination of lakeshore plants. Can. J. Bot. 66:548-552.

Moore, J.R.J., P.A. Keddy, C.L. Gaudet, and I.C. Wisheu. 1989. Conservation of wetlands: Do infertile wetlands deserve a higher priority? Biol. Conserv. 47:203-217.

Moore, P.D. and S.B. Chapman. 1986. Methods in Plant Ecology. Blackwell Sci. Pubs., Oxford, England.

Moore, J.W., V.A. Beaubien, and D.J. Sutherland. 1979. Comparative effects of sediment and water contamination on benthic invertebrates in four lakes. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 23(6):840-847.

Morgan, M.D. 1988. Impact of nutrient enrichment and alkalinization on periphyton communities in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Hydrobiologia 144:233-241.

Morgan, M.D. and K.R. Philipp. 1986. The effect of agricultural and residential development on aquatic macrophytes in the New Jersey Pine Barrens. Biol. Conserv. 35:143-158.

Morgan, R.P., K.J. Kilgore, and N.H. Douglas. 1988. Modified popnet design for collecting fishes in varying depths of submersed aquatic vegetation. J. Freshw. Ecol. 4(4):533-539.

Morin, E., A. Bouchard, and P. Jutras. 1989. Ecological analysis of disturbed riverbanks in the Montreal area of Quebec. Environ. Manage. 13(2):215-225.

Moring, J.R., G.C. Garman, and J. Mullen. 1985. The value of riparian zones for protecting aquatic systems: general concerns and recent studies in Maine. pp. 315-319 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Folliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Morrison, M.L. 1986. Bird populations as indicators of environmental change. Current Ornith.:429-451.

Mouvet, C. 1985. The use of aquatic Bryophytes to monitor heavy metals pollution of freshwaters as illustrated by case studies. Verh. International Verein. Limnol. 22(4):2420-2425.

Moyle, J.B. 1945. Some chemical factors influencing the distribution of aquatic plants in Minnesota. Amer. Midl. Nat. 34:402-420.

Moyle, P.B. and J.J. Cech. 1982. Fishes: An Introduction to Ichthyology. Prentice-Hall, Inc, Englewood Cliffs, NJ. 593 pp.

Moyle, P.B. 1973. Effects of introduced bullrogs on the native frogs of the San Joaquin Valley, California. Copeia 1973:18-22.

Mudroch, A. and J. Capobianco. 1979. Effects of treated effluent on a natural marsh. J. Water Pollu. Contr. Fed. 51(9):2243-2256.

Mueller-Dombois, D. and H. Ellenberg. 1974. Aims and Methods of Vegetation Ecology. J. Wiley & Sons, N.Y. 547 pp.

Muir, T.A. and D.G. Davis. 1989. Use of bird population data by the Environmental Protection Agency. Amer. Birds 43:269.

Mulligan, H.F., A. Baranowski, and R. Johnson. 1976. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization of aquatic vascular plants and algae in replicated ponds I. initial response to fertilization. Hydrobiol. 48(2):109-116.

Munkittrick, K.R. and D.G. Dixon. 1989. A holistic approach to ecosystem health assessment using fish population characteristics. Hydrobiologia 188/189:123-135.

Murkin, E.J. and H.R. Murkin (eds.). 1989. Marsh Ecology Research Program: Long-term Monitoring Procedures Manual. Tech. Bull. 2. Delta Waterfowl Research Station, Portage la Prairie, Manitoba, Canada. 80 pp.

Murkin, H.R. and J.A. Kadlec. 1986. Relationships between waterfowl and macroinvertebrate densities in a northern prairie marsh. J. Wildl. Manage. 50(2):212-217.

Murphy, K.J. and J.W. Eaton. 1983. Effects of pleasure-boat traffic on macrophyte growth in canals. J. Appl. Ecol. 20:713-29.

Murphy, K.J., R.G. Hanbury, and J.W. Eaton. 1981. The ecological effects of 2-methylthiotriazine herbicides used for aquatic weed control in navigable canals. I. Effects on aquatic flora and water chemistry. Arch. Hydrobiol. 91:294-331.

Murray, R.E. and R.E. Hodson. 1984. Microbial biomass and utilization of dissolved organic matter in the Okefenokee Swamp ecosystem. Appl. Environ. Microbial. 47(4):685-692.

Murray, R.E. and R.E. Hodson. 1985. Annual cycle of bacterial secondary production in five aquatic habitats of the Okefenokee Swamp ecosystem. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49(3):650-655.

Nachlinger, J.L. 1988. Soil-vegetation correlations in riparian and emergent wetlands, Lyon County, Nevada. Biol. Report 88(17). U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Nakashima, B.S. and W.C. Leggett. 1975. Yellow perch biomass responses to different levels of phytoplankton and benthic biomass in Lake Memphremagog, Quebec-Vermont. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32:1785-1797.

Nakashima, B.S., D. Gascon, and W.C. Leggett. 1977. Species diversity of littoral zone fishes along a nutrient/production gradient in Lake Memphremagog, Quebec-Vermont. J. Fish Res. Board Can. 32:1785-1797.

Neckles, H.A., H.R. Murkin, and J.A. Cooper. 1990. Influences of seasonal flooding on macroinvertebrate abundance in wetland habitats. Freshw. Biol. 23:311-322.

Nelson, N.F. 1954. Factors in the development and restoration of waterfowl habitat at Ogden Bay Refuge, Weber County, Utah. Utah State Dept. Fish & Game, Pub. # 6. 87 pp.

Nelson, J.W. and J.A. Kadlec. 1984. A conceptual approach to relating habitat structure and macroinvertebrate production in freshwater wetlands. Tran. N. Amer. Wildl. Nat. Res. Conf. 49:262-270.

Nelson, J.W. and E.C. Weller. 1984. A better rationale for wetland management. Environ. Manage. 8(4):295-308.

Neuswanger, D.J., W.W. Taylor, and J.B. Reynolds. 1982. Comparison of macroinvertebrate herpobenthos and haptobenthos in side channel and slough in the upper Mississippi River. Freshw. Invertebrate Biol. 1(3):13-24.

Newling, C.J. 1981. Ecological Investigation of a Greentree Reservoir in the Delta National Forest, Mississippi. Misc. Pap. EL-81-5. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Exp. Stn., Vicksburg, MS. 65 pp.

Nichols, S.J. 1981. Effect of thermal effluents on oligochaetes in Keowee Reservoir, South Carolina. Hydrobiologia 79:129-136.

Nichols, S.A. 1984. Macrophyte community dynamics in a dredged Wisconsin lake. Water Resour. Bull. 20:573-576.

Nichols, S.J., D.W. Schloesser, and P.L. Hudson. 1989. Submersed macrophyte communities before and after an episodic ice jam in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers. Nat. Fish. Res. Center - Great Lakes, U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Ann Arbor, MI.

Niehaus, M.N. 1971. Effect of nitrogen fertilizer on yield, crude protein content, and in vitro dry-matter disappearance on Phalaris arundinaceae. Agron. J. 63:793-794.

Nielsen, L.A. and D.L. Johnson (eds.). 1985. Fisheries Techniques. Amer. Fish. Soc., Bethesda, MD.

Niemeier, P.E. and W.A. Hubert. 1986. The 85-year history of the aquatic macrophyte species composition in a eutrophic prairie lake (United States). Aquatic Bot. 25:83-89.

Niering, W.A. 1985. Wetlands--The Audubon Society Nature Guide. Alfred A. Knopf Inc., New York.

Niethammer, K.R., R.D. Atkinson, T.S. Baskett, and F.B. Samson. 1985. Metals in riparian wildlife in the lead mining district of southeastern Missouri. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14:213-223.

Nilsson, C. and G. Grelsson. 1990. The effects of litter displacement on riverbank vegetation. Can. J. Bot. 68:735-741.

Nilsson, C. and P.A. Keddy. 1988. Predictability of change in shoreline vegetation in a hydroelectric reservoir, northern Sweden. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:1896-1904.

Noble, R.E. and P.K. Murphy. 1975. Short term effects of prolonged backwater flooding on understory vegetation. Castanea 40:228-238.

Nordquist, G.E. and E.C. Birney. 1980. The importance of peatland habitats to small mammals in Minnesota. Minn. Dept. Nat. Resour., St. Paul.

Odum, E.P. 1979. Perturbation theory and the subsidy-stress gradient. BioScience 29:349-353.

Odum, E.P. 1985. Trends expected in stressed ecosystems. BioScience 35:419-422.

Ohio Environmental Protection Agency (Ohio EPA). 1987. Biological Criteria for the Protection of Aquatic Life. Ohio EPA, Columbus.

Ohmart, R.D., W.O. Deason, and C. Burke. 1977. A riparian case history: the Colorado River. pp. 35-46 In: Importance, Preservation, and Management of Riparian Habitat: A Symposium. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-43. USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Ohmart, R.D. and B.W. Anderson. 1986. Riparian Habitats. pp. 169-200 In: A.Y. Cooperrider, R.J. Boyd, and H.R. Stuart. Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C.

Ohmart, R.D., B.W. Anderson, and W.C. Hunter. 1985. Influence of agriculture on waterbird, wader, and shorebird use along the Colorado River. pp. 117-122 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords). Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Ft. Collins, CO.

Ohmart, R.D., B.W. Anderson, and W.C. Hunter. 1988. The Ecology of the Lower Colorado River from Davis Dam to the Mexico-United States International Boundary: A Community Profile. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Biol. Rep. 85(7.19). 296 pp.

Ongley, E.D., D.A. Birkholz, J.H. Carey, and M.R. Samoiloff. 1988. Is water a relevant sampling medium for toxic chemicals? An alternative environmental sensing strategy. J. Environ. Qual. 17(3):391-401.

Olsen, L.A. 1984. Effects of Contaminated Sediment on Fish and Wildlife: Review and Annotated Bibliography. U.S. Fish Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C. FWS/0BS-82/66.

Olson, R.A. 1979. Ecology of Wetland Vegetation on Selected Strip Mine Ponds and Stockdams in the Northern Great Plains. Ph.D. Diss. Dept. Bot., North Dakota St. Univ., Fargo.

Olson, T.E. and F.L. Knopf. 1988. Patterns of relative diversity within riparian small mammal communities, Platte River watershed, Colorado. pp. 379-388 In: R.C. Szaro, K. E. Severson, D.R. Patton (tech. coords.). Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Ozimek, T. 1978. Effect of municipal sewage on the submerged macrophytes of a lake littoral. Ekol. Pol. 26:3-39.

Orser, P.N. and D.J. Shure. 1972. Effects of urbanization on the salamander Desmognathus fuscus fuscus. Ecology 53(6):1148-1154.

Ostendorp, W. 1989. "Die-back" of reeds in Europe--A critical review of literature. Aquat. Bot. 35:5-26.

Osterkamp, W.R., and C.R. Hupp. 1984. Geomorphic and vegetative characteristics along three northern Virginia streams. Ecol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 95:1093-1101.

Ozimek, T. 1978. Effect of municipal sewage on the submerged macrophytes of a lake littoral. Ekol. Pol. 26:3-39.

Paller, M.H. 1987. Distribution of larval fish macrophyte beds and open channels in a southeastern floodplain swamp. J. Freshw. Ecol. 4(2):191-200.

Paratley, R.D. and T.J. Fahey. 1986. Vegetation-environmental relations in a conifer swamp in central New York. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 113:357-371.

Pardue, G.B. 1973. Production response of the bluegill sunfish to added attachment surface for fish-food organisms. Trans. Amer. Fish. Soc. 102:622-626.

Pardue, G.B., M.T. Huish, and H.R. Perry, Jr. 1975. Ecological Studies of Two Swamp Watersheds in Northeastern North Carolina. A Prechannelization Study. NC Water Resour. Res.Inst., Raleigh, Rep. #UNC-WRRI-75-105, (NTIS PB-242 126/OST). 472 pp.

Pardue, G.B. and M.T. Huish. 1981. An evaluation of methods for collecting fishes in swamp streams. pp. 282-290. In: L.A. Krumholz (ed.). The Warmwater Streams Symposium. Amer. Fish Soc., Bethesda, MD.

Parker, G.R. and G. Schneider. 1975. Biomass and productivity of an alder swamp in northern Michigan. Can. J. For. Res. 5:403-409.

Parsons, J.D. 1968. The effects of acid strip mine effluents on the ecology of a stream. Arch. Hydrobiol. 65:25-50.

Patrick, R. 1977. Ecology of freshwater diatoms. pp. 284-332 In: D. Werner (ed.). The Biology of Diatoms. Botanical Monographs Vol. 13, Univ. of Calif. Press, Berkeley, CA.

Patrick, R. 1988. Importance of diversity in the functioning and structure of riverine communities. Limnol. Oceanogr. 33(6 part 1):1304-1307.

Patterson, J. H. 1976. The role of environmental heterogeneity in the regulation of duck populations. J. Wildl. Manage. 40:22-32.

Patterson, N.J. and T.H. Whillans. 1984. Human interference with natural water level regimes in the context of other cultural stresses on Great Lakes wetlands. pp. 209-239 In: Prince, H.H., and F.M. D'Itri (eds.). Coastal Wetlands. Lewis Publ., Inc., Chelsea, MI.

Pechmann, J.H.K., D.E. Scott, J.W. Gibbons, and R.D. Semlitsch. 1988. Influence of wetland hydroperiod on diversity and abundance of metamorphosing juvenile amphibians. Wetl. Ecol. Manage. 1(1):3-11.

Pedersen, E.R. and M.A. Perkins. 1986. The use of benthic invertebrate data for evaluating impacts of urban runoff. Hydrobiol. 139:13-22.

Pendleton, G.W. 1984. Small mammals in prairie wetlands: Habitat use and the effects of wetland modification. M.S. Thesis, South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD. 54 pp.

Pendleton, W.O. 1974. A synecological study of the spiders of Santee Swamp South Carolina. M.S. Thesis, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. 23 pp.

Pennington, C.H., H.L. Schramm,Jr., M.E. Potter, and M.P. Farrell. 1980. Aquatic Habitat Studies on the Lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Rep. 5., Environ. Lab. U.S. Army Engr. Waterw. Expt.Stn., Vicksburg, MS. Misc. Paper E-80-1. 101 pp.

Pennington, C.H., J.A. Baker, F.G. Howell, and C.L. Bond. 1981. Study of Cutoff Bendways on the Tombigbee River. Tech. Rep. E-81-14, U.S. Army Engr. Waterw. Expt.Stn., Vicksburg, MS.

Penrose, D. 1989. Biological Evaluation of Little Cokey Swamp (Tar 03-03-03). North Carolina Div. Envir. Manage., Water Quality Section, Raleigh, NC.

Perdue, E.M., C.R. Lytle, M.S. Sweet, and J.W. Sweet. 1981. The Chemical and Biological Impact of Klamath Marsh on the Williamson River, Oregon. Environ. Sci. & Resour., Portland State Univ., Water Resour. Res. Inst., Oregon State Univ. WRRI-71, 199 pp.

Peterson, N.P. 1982. Population characteristics of juvenile coho salmon overwintering in riverine ponds. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 39:1303-1307.

Pezeshik, C. 1987. Response of benthic macroinvertebrates of a shrub swamp to discharge of treated wastewater. M.S. Thesis., Univ. of Florida, Gainesville.

Philipp, C.C. and R.G. Brown. 1965. Ecological studies of transition-zone vascular plants in South River, Maryland. Ches. Sci. 6:73-81.

Phillips, E.A. 1959. Methods of Vegetation Study. Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, Inc., New York.

Phillips, G.L., D. Eminson, and B. Moss. 1978. A mechanism to account for macrophyte decline in progressively eutrophicated freshwaters. Aquat. Bot. 4:103-126.

Phillips, D.J.H. 1980. Quantitative Aquatic Biological Indicators. Appl. Sci. Pub. Ltd., London.

Phillips, J.D. 1989. Nonpoint source pollution risk assessment in a watershed context. Environ. Manage. 13:493-502.

Phillips, K. 1990. Where have all the frogs and toads gone? Bioscience 40:422-424.

Pielou, E.C. 1984. The Interpretation of Ecological Data: A Primer on Classification and Ordination. John Wiley & Sons, NY. 263 pp.

Pierce, B.A. 1985. Acid tolerance in amphibians. BioScience 35:239-243.

Piest, L.A. and L.K. Sowls. 1985. Breeding duck use of a sewage marsh in Arizona. J. Wildl. Manage. 49:580-585.

Pignatello, J.J., L.K. Johnson, M.M. Martinson, R.E. Carlson, and R.L. Crawford. 1985. Response of the microflora in outdoor experimental streams to pentachlorophenol: compartmental contributions. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 50:127-132.

Pinkowski, R.H., G.L. Rolfe, and L.E. Arnold. 1985. Effect of feedlot runoff on a southern Illinois forested watershed. J. Environ. Qual. 14(1):47-54.

Pip, E. 1979. Survey of the ecology of submerged aquatic macrophytes in central Canada. Aquat. Bot. 7:339-357.

Pip, E. 1987. The ecology of Potamogeton species in central North America. Hydrobiol. 153:203-216.

Pip, E. 1987. Species richness of aquatic macrophytes in central Canada. Hydrobiol. Bull. 21:159-165.

Pip, E. 1989. Water temperature and freshwater macrophyte distribution. Aquat. Bot. 34:367-373.

Plafkin, J.L., D.L. Kuhn, J. Cairns, and W.H. Yongue,Jr. 1980. Protozoan species accrual on artificial islands in differing lentic and wetland systems. Hydrobiologia 75:161-178.

Plafkin, J.L., M.T. Barbour, K.D. Porter, S.K. Gross, and R.M. Hughes. 1989. Rapid Bioassessment Protocols for Use in Streams and Rivers: Benthic Macroinvertebrates and Fish. U.S. Environ. Protection Agency, Off. of Water, Washington, D.C. EPA/444/4-89-001.

Plante, C. and J.A. Downing. 1989. Production of freshwater invertebrate populations in lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46:1489-1498.

Platt, H.M., K.M. Shaw, and P.J.D. Lambshead. 1984. Nematode species abundance patterns and their use in the detection of environmental perturbations. Hydrobiologia 118:59-66.

Platts, W.S. and R.L. Nelson. 1988. Fluctuations in trout populations and their implications for land-use evaluation. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 8:333-345.

Platts, W.S., et al. 1987. Methods for Evaluating Riparian Habitats with Applications to Management. Gen. Tech. Rep. INT-221. USDA For. Serv., Ogden, UT. 177 pp.

Poe, T.P., C.O. Hatcher, C.L. Brown, and D.W. Schloesser. 1986. Comparison of species composition and richness of fish assemblages in altered and unaltered littoral habitats. J. Freshw. Ecol. 3(4):525-536.

Poff, N.L. and R.A. Matthews. 1986. Benthic macroinvertebrate community structural and functional group response to thermal enhancement in the Savannah River and a Coastal Plain tributary. Arch. Hydrobiol. 106:119-137.

Poff, N.L. and J.V. Ward. 1989. Implications of streamflow variability and predictability for lotic community structure: a regional analysis of streamflow patterns. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 46:1805-1818.

Poiani, K.A. and W.C. Johnson. 1989. Effect of hydroperiod on seed-bank composition in semi-permanent prairie wetlands. Can. J. Bot. 67:856-864.

Polovino, H.N., M.P. Farrell, and C.H. Pennington. 1983. Evaluating changes in dike field fishes with community information indices. Tech. Rep. E-83-14. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Exp. Stn., Vicksburg, MS. 47 pp.

Pomerantz, G.A., D.J. Decker, G.R. Goff and K.G. Purdy. 1988. Assessing impact of recreation on wildlife: a classification scheme. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 16(1):58-62.

Portt, C.B., E.K. Balon, and D.L.G. Noakes. 1986. Biomass and production of fishes in natural and channelized streams. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43:1926-1934.

Possardt, E.E. and W.E. Dodge. 1978. Stream channelization impacts on songbirds and small mammals in Vermont. Wildl. Soc. Bull. 6:18-24.

Pratt, J.R. and J. Cairns, Jr. 1985a. Functional groups in the Protozoa: roles in differing ecosystems. J. Protozool. 32:415-423.

Pratt, J.R. and J. Cairns, Jr. 1985b. Determining microbial community equilibrium in disturbed wetland ecosystems. pp. 201-209 In: F.J. Webb (ed.). Proc. 12th Ann. Conf. on Wetland Restoration. Hillsborough Comm. College, Tampa, FL.

Pratt, J.R., J. Cairns, Jr., and P.M. Stewart. 1985. Development of microbial communities in mined lakes. pp. 239-260 In: R.P. Brooks, D.E. Samuel, and J.B. Hill (eds.) Wetlands and Water Management on Mined Lands. Penn. St. Univ., University Park, PA.

Prescott, G.W. 1968. The Algae: A Review. Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston. 436 pp.

Pringle, W.L. and A.L. van Ryswyk. 1968. Carry-over effects of high fertilizer rates on native sedge bog vegetation in interior British Columbia. Can. J. Plant Sci. 48:49-55.

Pritchard, G. and P.J. Scholefield. 1980. An emergence trap for use in shallow ponds. Mosquito News 40:294-296.

Rabe, F.W. and F. Gibson. 1984. The effect of macrophyte removal on the distribution of selected invertebrates in a littoral environment. J. Freshw. Ecol. 2(4):359-371.

Radwan, S. and B. Popiolek. 1989. Percentage of rotifers in spring zooplankton in lakes of different trophy. Hydrobiologia 186/187: 235-238.

Rae, J.G. 1989. Chironomid midges as indicators of organic pollution in the Scioto River basin, Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 89:5-9.

Rahel, F.J. 1984. Factors structuring fish assemblages along a bog lake successional gradient. Ecol. 65:1276-1289.

Rahel, F.J. 1986. Biogeographic influences on fish species composition of northern Wisconsin lakes with applications for lake acidification studies. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 43:124-134.

Rahel, F.J. and J.J. Magnuson. 1983. Low pH and the absence of fish species in naturally acidic Wisconsin lakes: inferences for cultural acidification. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 40:3-9.

Ralph, C.J. and J.M. Scott (eds.). 1981. Estimating numbers of terrestrial birds. Studies In Avian Biology. 630 pp.

Ramm, A.E. 1988. The community degradation index: a new method for deterioration of aquatic habitats. Wat. Res. 22:293-301.

Ramsay, A. 1978. The effect of the addition of sewage effluent on cypress dome bird communities. M.S. Thesis, School For. Resour. and Conserv., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL. 22 pp.

Rasmussen, J.B. 1982. The effect of thermal effluent, before and after macrophyte harvesting, on standing crop and species composition of benthic macroinvertebrate communities in Lake Wabamun, Alberta. Can. J. Zool. 60:3196-3205.

Rector, C.D., E.W. Mustard, and J.T. Windell. 1979. Lower Gunnison River Basin Wetland Inventory and Evaluation. U.S. Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, Denver, CO. 90 pp.

Reed, D.M., J.H. Riemer, and J.A. Schwarzmeier. 1977. Some observations on the relationship of floodplain siltation to reed canary grass abundance. pp. 99-107 In: C.B. DeWitt and E. Soloway (eds.). Wetlands Ecology, Values, and Impacts. Proc. of the Waubesa Conf. on Wetlands. Inst. Environ. Studies, U. Wisconsin, Madison.

Reed, P.B., Jr. 1968. Preliminary study of a green-timber impoundment. M.S. Thesis, Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY.

Reed, P.B., Jr. 1988. National List of Plant Species that Occur in Wetlands. Biol. Rep. 33(24)., US Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C. 244 pp.

Reichholf, V.J. 1976. The possible use of the aquatic bird communities as indicators for the ecological conditions of wetlands. Landschaft + Stadt 3/1976.

Reid, F. 1985. Wetland invertebrates in relation to hydrology and water chemistry. pp. 51-60 In: M.D. Knighton (ed.), Water Impoundments for Wildlife: A Habitat Management Workshop. Gen. Tech. Rep. NC-100, USDA Forest Serv., St. Paul, MN.

Reimold, R.J. and W.H. Queen (eds.). 1974. Ecology of Halophytes. Academic Press, New York.

Reiners, W.A. 1972. Structure and energetics of three Minnesota forests. Ecol. Monogr. 42(1):71-94.

Resh, V.H. and D.G. Price. 1984. Sequential sampling: A cost-effective approach for monitoring benthic macroinvertebrates in environmental impact assessments. Environ. Manage. 8(1):75-80.

Reynolds, J.D. and S.C.P. Reynolds. 1975. Aquatic angiosperms of some British Columbia saline lakes. Syesis 8:291-295.

Rice, J., B. W. Anderson, and R. D. Ohmart. 1980. Seasonal habitat selection by birds in the lower Colorado River valley. Ecology 61:1402-1411.

Richardson, D.R. 1977. Vegetation of the Atlantic coastal ridge of Palm Beach County, Florida. Florida Sci. 40:281-330.

Richardson, C.J., W.A. Wentz, J.P.N. Chamie, J.A. Kadlec, and D.L. Tilton. 1976. Plant growth, nutrient accumulation, and decomposition. pp. 77-118 In: D.L. Tilton, R.H. Kadlec, and C.J. Richardson (eds.). Freshwater Wetlands and Sewage Effluent Disposal. Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor.

Richardson, C.J. and P.E. Marshall. 1986. Processes controlling movement, storage, and export of phosphorus in a fen peatland. Ecol. Monogr. 56:279-302.

Richardson, C.J. and B.R. Schwegler. 1986. Algal bioassay and gross productivity experiments using sewage effluent in a Michigan wetland. Water Res. Bull. 22(1):111-120.

Richardson, J., P.A. Straub, K.C. Ewel, and H.T. Odum. 1983. Sulfate-enriched water effects on a floodplain forest in Florida. Environ. Manage. 7:321-326.

Robbins, J.A., T. Keilty, D.S. White, and D.N. Edgington. 1989. Relationships among Tubificid abundances, sediment composition, and accumulation rates in Lake Erie. Can. J. Aquat. Sci. 46:223-231.

Robel, R. J. 1962. Changes in submersed vegetation following a change in water level. J. Wildlife Mgt. 26:221-224.

Roberts, D.A., R. Singer, and C.W. Boylen. 1985. The submersed macrophyte communities of Adirondack lakes of varying degrees of acidity. Aquat. Bot. 21:219-235.

Robertson, R.J. and N.J. Flood. 1980. Effects of recreational use of shorelines on breeding bird populations. Can. Field-Nat. 94:131-138.

Robinson-Wilson, E. 1981. The function of rooted aquatic macrophytes with respect to contaminant areas. Ecol. Soc. Amer. Bull. 62(2):73-74.

Rochow, T.F. 1983. Vegetational Monitoring at the Cypress Creek Wellfield, Pasco County, Florida. Environ. Sect. Tech. Pap. 1983-2. Southwest Florida Water Manage. Distr., Brooksville, Florida.

Rochow, T.F., and M. Lopez. 1984. Hydrobiological monitoring of cypress domes in the green Swamp area of Lake and Sumter Counties, Florida, 1979-1982. Southern Florida Water Mgt. District, Brooksville, FL.

Rosas, I., M. Mazari, J. Saavaedra, and A.P. Baez. 1985. Benthic organisms as indicators of water quality in Lake Patzcuaro, Mexico. Water Air Soil Pollut. 25:401-414.

Rosenberg, D.M. and A.P. Wiens. 1976. Community and species responses of Chironomidae (Diptera) to contamination of fresh waters by crude oil and petroleum products, with special reference to the Trail River, Northwest Territories. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 33(9):1955-1963.

Rosenberg, D.M., A.P. Wiens, and B. Bilyj. 1980. Sampling emerging Chironomidae (Diptera) with submerged funnel traps in a new northern Canadian reservoir, Southern Indian Lake, Manitoba. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37:927-936.

Rosenberg, D.M., B. Bilyj, and A.P. Wiens. 1984. Chironomidae (Diptera) emerging form the littoral zone of reservoirs, with special reference to Southern Indian Lake, Manitoba. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 41:672-681.

Rosenberry, D.O. 1990. Inexpensive groundwater monitoring methods for determining hydrologic budgets of lakes and wetlands. pp. 123-131 In: Proceedings of a Conference on Enhancing the State's Lake and Wetland Management Programs. Northeast Ill. Planning Comm., Chicago, IL.

Ross, S.T. and J.A. Baker. 1983. The response of fishes to periodic spring floods in a southeastern stream. Amer. Midl. Nat. 109(1):1-15.

Royce, C.L., J.S. Fletcher, P.R. Risser, J.C. McFarlane, and F.E. Bennati. 1984. PHYTOTOX: A database dealing with the effect of organic chemicals on terrestrial vascular plants. J. Chem. Ing. Comput. Sci. 24:7-10.

Ruta Stuber, P.J. 1986. User's Handbook for the Wetland Values Data Base. National Ecology Research Lab., U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Saether, O.A. 1975. Nearctic Chironomids as indicators of lake topology. Verh. International Verein. Limnol. 19:3127-3133.

Samson, F.B., F.L. Knopf, and L.B. Hass. 1988. Small mammal response to the introduction of cattle into a cottonwood floodplain. pp. 432-438 In: R.C. Szaro, K. E. Severson, D.R. Patton (tech. coords.). Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Satake, K. 1987. A small dredge for sampling aquatic macrophytes. Hydrobiologia 150:141-142.

Savitz, J., P.A. Fish, and R. Weszely. 1983. Habitat utilization and movement of fish as determined by radio-telemetry. J. Freshw. Ecol. 2:165-174.

Sauer, J.R. and S. Droege (eds.). 1990. Survey Designs and Statistical Methods for the Estimation of Avian Population Trends. Biol. Rep. 90(1). U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Patuxent, MD. 167 pp.

Scelsi, P. nd. Small mammal and bird utilization of New Jersey highway interchanges containing wetland habitat. N.J. Dept. Transportation, Trenton.

Schaeffer, D.J., E.E. Herricks, and H.W. Kerster. 1988. Ecosystem health: I. Measuring ecosystem health. Environ. Manage. 12(4):445-455.

Scheffer, M., A.A. Achterberg, and B. Beltman. 1984. Distribution of macro-invertebrates in a ditch in relation to the vegetation. Freshw. Biol. 14:367-370.

Schell, V.A. and J.J. Kerekes. 1989. Distribution, abundance, and biomass of benthic macroinvertebrates relative to pH and nutrients in eight lakes of Nova Scotia, Canada. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 46:359-374.

Scheuhammer, A.M. 1987. Reproductive effects of chronic, low-level dietary metal exposure in birds. Trans. 52nd N.A. Wildl. & Nat. Res. Conf. 52:658-664.

Schiefele, G.W. and G. Mulamoottil. 1988. Predictive models applicable to Ontario's wetland evaluation system. pp. 267-273 In: C.D.A. Rubec and R.P. Overend. Proceedings of Symposium '87--wetlands/Peatlands, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 1987.

Schierup, H.-H. and V.J. Larsen. 1981. Macrophyte cycling of zinc, copper, lead, and cadmium in the littoral zone of a polluted and a non-polluted lake. I. Availability, uptake and translocation of heavy metals in Phragmites australis. Aquat. Bot. 11:197-210.

Schimpf, D.J. 1989. Wetland vegetation near Biwabik, Minnesota, before and after addition of sewage effluent. Dept. of Biol., Univ. of Minnesota, Duluth, MN.

Schindler, D.W. 1987. Detecting ecosystem responses to anthropogenic stress. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 44(1):6-25.

Schindler, D.W. and M. Turner. 1982. Biological, chemical, and physical responses of lakes to experimental acidification. Water, Air, Soil Pollut. 18:259-271.

Schloesser, D.W. and B.A. Manny. 1989. Potential effects of shipping on submersed macrophytes in the St. Clair and Detroit rivers of the Great Lakes. Contrib. 696 Nat. Fish. Res. Center - Great Lakes, Ann Arbor, Michigan, Acad., Sci., Arts, Lett. 0026-2005/89, Michigan Academician XXI, pp. 101-108.

Schmid, W.D. 1965. Distribution of aquatic vegetation as measured by line intercept with SCUBA. Ecol.46:816-823.

Schmider, F. and J.C.G. Ottow. 1985. Characterization of differently polluted ponds by submerged macrophytes and various denitrifying bacteria. Verh. International Verein. Limnol. 22(4):2303-2308.

Schneider, J.P. and J.G. Ehrenfeld. 1987. Suburban development and cedar swamps: Effects on water quality, water quantity, and plant community composition. pp. 271-288 In: A.D. Laderman (ed.). Atlantic White Cedar Wetlands. Westview Press.

Schoenberg, S.A. and J.D. Oliver. 1988. Temporal dynamics and spatial variation of algae in relation to hydrology and sediment characteristics in the Okefenokee Swamp, Georgia. Hydrobiologia 162:123-133.

Schramm, H.L., Jr. and C.H. Pennington. 1981. Aquatic habitat studies on the lower Mississippi River, River Mile 480 to 530. Rep. 6., Environ. Lab. U.S. Army Engr., Waterw. Expt.Stn., Vicksburg, MS. Misc. Paper E-80-1. 74 pp.

Schramm, H.L., K.J. Jirka, and M.V. Hoyer. 1987. Epiphytic macroinvertebrates on dominant macrophytes in two central Florida lakes. J. Freshw. Ecol. 4(2):151-176.

Schroeder, R.L. 1987. Community Models for Wildlife Impact Assessment: A Review of Concepts and Approaches. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., National Ecology Center, Resource Evaluation and Modeling Section, Fort Collins, CO.

Schultz, B.D. 1987. Biotic responses of Typha-monodominant semipermanent wetlands to cattle grazing. M.S. Thesis, South Dakota State Univ., Brookings, SD. 92 pp.

Schwartz, L.N. 1987. Regulation of wastewater discharge to Florida wetlands. pp. 951-958 In: K.R. Reddy and W.H. Smith (eds.). Aquatic Plants for Water Treatment and Resource Recovery. Magnolia Publishing Co.

Schwartz, L.N. and G.K. Gruendling. 1985. The effects of sewage on a Lake Champlain wetland. J. Freshw. Ecol. 3(1):35-46.

Schwintzer, C.R. 1978. Nutrient and water levels in a small Michigan bog with high tree mortality. Amer. Midl. Nat. 100(2):441-451.

Schwoerbel, J. 1970. Methods of Hydrobiology. Pergamon Press, London. 200 pp.

Scorgie, H.R.A. 1980. Ecological effects of the aquatic herbicide cyanatryn on a drainage canal. J. Appl. Ecol. 17:207-225.

Scott, M.L., R.R. Sharitz, and L.C. Lee. 1985. Disturbance in a cypress-tupelo wetland: An interaction between thermal loading and hydrology. Wetlands 5:53-68.

Scott, S.L. and J.A. Osborne. 1981. Benthic macroinvertebrates of a Hydrilla infested central Florida Lake. J. Freshw. Ecol. 1(1):41-49.

Scott, N.J. 1982. Herpetological Communities: A Symposium of the Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles and the Herpetologists' League. Wildlife Res. Rep. 13. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Fort Collins, CO. 239 pp.

Searls, D.A. 1974. Influence of vegetation of the distribution of small mammals on a waterfowl production area. M.S. Thesis, South Dakota St. Univ., Brookings, SD. 47 pp.

Sedana, I.P. 1987. Development of benthos and its relationship to fish production in ponds with organic loading. Ph.D. Diss., Auburn Univ., Auburn, AL. 118 pp.

Seddon, B. 1972. Aquatic macrophytes as limnological indicators. Freshw. Biol. 2:107-130.

Seelbach, P.W. and W.F. McDiffett. 1983. Distribution and abundance of zooplankton in an alkaline freshwater marsh in Northumberland County, Pennsylvania. Int. Revue ges. Hydrobiol. 68(3):379-395.

Seidel, K. 1966. Purification of water by means of higher plants. Naturwissenschaften 53:289-297.

Sharitz, R.R., J.E. Irwin, and E.J. Christy. 1974. Vegetation of swamps receiving reactor effluents. Oikos 25:7-13.

Shaw, P.S. and C.G. Fredine. 1956. Wetlands of the United States. Circ. No. 39, U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Sheath, R.G., J.M. Burkholder, J.A. Hambrook, A.M. Hogeland, E. Hoy, M.E. Kane, M.O. Morison, A.D. Steinman, and K.L. Van Alstyne. 1986. Characteristics of softwater streams in Rhode Island. III. Distribution of macrophytic vegetation in a small drain. Hydrobiologia 140:183-191.

Sheehan, P.K., A. Baril, P. Mineau, D.K. Smith, and W.K. Marshall. 1987. The Impact of Pesticides on the Ecology of Prairie Nesting Ducks. Tech. Rep. Series No. 19. Canadian Wildl. Serv., Ottawa.

Sheehan, P.J. 1984. Effects on community and ecosystem structure and dynamics. pp. 51-100 In: P.J. Sheehan, D.R. Miller, G.C. Butler, and P. Bourdeau. Effects of Pollutants at the Ecosystem Level. J. Wiley & Sons, New York.

Shekov, A.G. 1974. Effect of salinization on hydromacrophytes of Kuan Limans. Sov. J. Ecol. 5:450-454.

Sheldon, S.P. 1986. The effects of short-term disturbance on a freshwater macrophyte community. J. Freshw. Ecol. 3(3):309-317.

Sherman, A.D., S.E. Gwin, and M.E. Kentula. 1989. Quality Assurance Project Plan, New England Wetlands Study. U.S. Envir. Protec. Agency Envir. Res. Lab., Corvallis, OR.

Shimoda, M. 1984. Macrophytic communities and their significance as indicators of water quality in two ponds in the Saijo Basin, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. Hikobia 9:1-1

Short, H.L. 1983. Wildlife Guilds in Arizona Desert Habitats. Tech. Note 362. U.S. Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C.

Short, H.L. 1989. A wildlife habitat model for predicting effects of human activities on nesting birds. pp. 957-974 In:

Sigafoos, R.S. 1964. Botanical Evidence of Floods and Flood-plain Deposition. Prof. Pap. 485-A, U.S. Geol. Surv., Reston, VA.

Sigal, L.L. and T.H. Nash. 1980. Lichens as ecological indicators of photochemical oxidant air pollution. p. 249 In: Proceedings of Symposium on Effects of Air Pollutants on Mediterranean and Temperate Forest Ecosystems. Gen. Tech. Rep. PSW-43, USDA Forest Serv., Berkeley, CA. Simenstad, C.A., C.D. Tanner, and R.M. Thom. 1989. Estuarine Wetland Restoration Monitoring Protocol. Fish. Research Inst., Univ. Washington, Seattle. 191 pp. + appendices.

Simons, L.H. 1985. Small mammal community structure in old growth and logged riparian habitat. pp. 505-506 In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords). Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech Rep. RM-120, USDA Forest Serv., Ft. Collins, CO.

Sjoberg, K. and K. Danell. 1983. Effects of permanent flooding on Carex-Equisetum wetlands in Northern Sweden. Aquat. Bot. 15:275-286.

Sklar, F.H. 1985. Seasonality and community structure of the backswamp invertebrates in a Louisiana cypress-tupelo wetland. Wetlands 5:69-86.

Sklar, F.H. and W.H. Conner. 1979. Effects of altered hydrology on primary production and aquatic animal populations in a Louisiana swamp forest. pp. 191-210 In: J.W. Day, Jr., D.D. Culley, Jr., R.E. Turner, and A.J. Mumphry, Jr. (eds.). Proc. Third Coastal Marsh and Estuary Management Symposium, Lousiana State Univ., Div. Contin. Educ., Baton Rouge.

Sklar, F.H. and W.H. Conner. 1983. Swamp forest communities and their relation to hydrology: The impacts of artificial canals. pp. 245-272 In: R.J. Varnell (ed.), Water Quality and Wetland Manage. Conf. Proc., New Orleans, LA.

Smith, R.H. 1953. A study of waterfowl production on artificial reservoirs in eastern Montana. J. Wildl. Manage. 17:276-291.

Smith, S.G. 1973. Ecology of the Scirpus lacustris complex in North America. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiol. 20:215-216.

Smith, B.D., P.S. Maitland, and S.M. Pennock. 1987. A comparative study of water level regimes and littoral benthic communities in Scottish Lochs. Biol. Cons. 39:291-316.

Smock, L.A., E. Gilinsky, and D. L. Stoneburner. 1985. Macroinvertebrate production in a southeastern United States blackwater stream. Ecol. 66(5):491-503.

Smock, L.A., D.L. Stoneburner, and D.R. Lenat. 1981. Littoral and profundal macroinvertebrate communities of a coastal brown-water lake. Arch. Hydrobiol. 92(3):306-320.

Smock, L.A., G.M. Metzler, and J.E. Gladden. 1989. Role of debris dams in the structure and functioning of low-gradient headwater streams. Ecol. 70(3):764-775.

Smock, L.A. and D.L. Stoneburner. 1980. The response of macroinvertebrates to aquatic macrophyte decomposition. Oikos 35:397-403.

Smith, L.M. and J.A. Kadlec. 1985. A comparison of marsh plant loss estimates in production techniques. Amer. Midl. Nat. 114(2):393-395.

Sonstegard, R.A. 1977. The potential utility of fishes as indicator organisms for environmental carcinogens. pp. 561-577 In: F.M. D'Itri (ed.). Wastewater Renovation and Reuse. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York.

Southeastern Forest Experiment Station. 1958. Annual Report. USDA Forest Serv., Asheville, N.C. 75 pp.

Southwick, C.H. and F.W. Pine. 1975. Abundance of submerged vascular vegetation in the Rhode River from 1966 to 1973. Chesapeake Sci. 16(1):147-151.

Southwood, T.R.E. 1981. Ecological Methods, with Particular References to the Study of Insect Populations. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY. 524 pp.

Speich, S.M. 1986. Colonial Waterbirds. pp. 387-406 In: A.Y. Cooperrider, R.J. Boyd, and H.R. Stuart. Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Washington, D.C.

Spence, D.H.N. 1982. The zonation of plants in freshwater lakes. Adv. Ecol. Res. 12:37-125.

Sprules, W. 1975. Midsummer crustacean zooplankton communities in acid-stressed lakes. J. Fish. Res. Board Can. 32:389-395.

Squires, L.E., S.R. Rushforth, and J.D. Broterson. 1979. Algal response to a thermal effluent: Study of a power station on the Provo River, Utah. Hydrobiologia 63:17-32.

Stalmaster, M. V. and J. R. Newman. 1978. Behavioral responses of wintering bald eagles to human activity. J. Wildl. Manage. 42:506-513.

Stanley, R.A. and C.E. Madewell. 1976. Chemical tolerance of Lemna minor. Circ. Z-72. Tennessee Valley Authority, Knoxville, TN.

Stauffer, D.F. and L.B. Best. 1980. Habitat selection by birds of riparian communities: Evaluating effects of habitat alterations. J. Wildl. Manage. 44:1-15.

Steele, B.B., R.L. Bayn, Jr., and C.V. Grant. 1984. Environmental monitoring using populations of birds and small mammals: Analysis of sampling effort. Biol. Conserv. 30:157-172.

Stephenson, M. and G.L. Mackie. 1988. Multivariate analysis of correlations between environmental parameters and cadmium concentrations in Hyalella azteca (Crustacea: Amphipoda) from central Ontario lakes. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:1705-1710.

Stevens, L.E. and G.L. Waring. 1985. The effects of prolonged flooding in the riparian plant community in Grand Canyon. In: R.R. Johnson, C.D. Ziebell, D.R. Patton, P.F. Ffolliott, R.H. Hamre (tech. coords.). Riparian Ecosystems and their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Uses. Gen. Tech Rep. RM-120, USDA For. Serv., Ft. Collins, CO.

Stewart-Oaten, A., W. Murdoch, and K.R. Parker. 1986. Environmental impact assessment: pseudoreplication in time? Ecology 67: 929-940.

Stewart, R.E. and H.A. Kantrud. 1972. Vegetation of Prairie Potholes, North Dakota, in Relation to Quality of Water and Other Environmental Factors. Prof. Pap. 585-D, U.S. Geol. Surv., Reston, VA. 36 pp.

Stewart, R.E. and H.A. Kantrud. 1973. Ecological distribution of breeding waterfowl populations in North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 37:39-50.

Stewart, R.E. and H.A. Kantrud. 1974. Breeding waterfowl populations in the prairie pothole region of North Dakota. Condor 76:70-79.

Stockwell, S.S. 1985. Distribution and abundance of amphibians, reptiles, and small mammals in eight types of Maine peatland vegetation. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Maine, Orono. 57 pp.

Stoddard, J. L. 1987. Microcrustacean communities of high-elevation lakes in the Sierra Nevada, California. J. Plankton Research 9:631-650.

Stoeckeler, J.H. 1967. Wetland Road Crossings: Drainage Problems and Timber Damage. USDA For. Serv. Res. Note NC-27, North Central For. Expt.Stn., St. Paul, MN. 4 pp.

Stokes, P.M. 1981. Benthic algal communities in acidic lakes. pp. 119-138 In: R. Singer (ed.), The Effects of Acidic Precipitation on Benthos. Proc. Symposium N. Amer. Benthological Soc., Canterbury Press. New York.

Stokes, P.M. 1984. pH related changes in attached algal communities of softwater lakes. pp. 43-62 In: G.R. Hendrey (ed.), Early Biotic Responces to Advancing Lake Acidification. Butterworth Publishers, Boston, MA.

Stout, J.D. and O.W. Heal. 1967. Protozoa. pp. 149-195 In: A. Burges and F. Raw (eds.). Soil Biology. Academic Press, NY.

Strange, J.R. 1976. Effects of high levels of inorganic phosphate on aquatic organisms in phosphate-rich environments. P.B. No. 263-390. Environ. Resour. Center, Georgia Inst. Tech., Atlanta, GA.

Straub, P.A. 1984. Effects of wastewater and inorganic fertilizer on growth rates and nutrient concentrations in dominant tree species in cypress domes. pp. 127-140 In: Odum, H.T. and K.C. Ewel (eds.). Cypress Wetlands for Water Management, Recycling and Conservation. Fourth Ann. Rep., Univ. Florida, Gainesville, FL.

Stuckey, R.L. 1971. Changes of vascular aquatic flowering plants during 70 years in Put-In-Bay Harbor, Lake Erie, Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 71(6):321-342.

Stuckey, R.L. and W.A. Wentz. 1969. Effect of industrial pollution on the aquatic and shore angiosperm flora in the Ottawa River, Allen and Putman Counties, Ohio. Ohio J. Sci.69:226-242.

Summers, J.K. and H.N. McKellar, Jr. 1981. A sensitivity analysis of an ecosystem model of estuarine carbon flow. Ecol. Modelling 13:283-301.

Swales, S. 1982. Impacts of weed-cutting on fisheries: An experimental study in a small lowland river. Fish. Manage. 13(4):125-35.

Swanson, D.K. 1988. Properties of peatlands in relation to environmental factors in Minnesota. Ph.D. Diss., Univ. Minnesota, Minneapolis. 231 pp.

Swanson, G.A. 1977. Diel food selection by Anatinae on a waste stabilization system. J. Wildl. Manage. 41(2):226-231.

Swanson, G.A. 1978. A water column sampler for invertebrates in shallow wetlands. J. Wildl. Manage. 42(3):670-672.

Swanson, G.A. 1984. Dissemination of amphipods by waterfowl. J. Wildl. Manage. 48(3):988-991.

Swanson, G.A. 1987. Vegetation changes in wetlands of the Cottonwood Lake area. North Dakota Acad. Sci. 41:29.

Swanson, G.A., V.A. Adomaitis, F.B. Lee, S.R. Serie, and J.A. Shoesmith. 1984. Limnological conditions influencing duckling use of saline lakes in south-central North Dakota. J. Wildl. Manage. 48:340-349.

Swift, B.L., J.S. Larson, and R.M. Degraaf. 1984. Relationship of breeding bird density and diversity to habitat variables in forested wetlands. Wilson Bull. 96(1):48-59.

Swihart, T., O.E. Walton, and M.G. Pennington. 1986. An antidegradation policy for preserving water quality in Florida. Water Resour. Bull. 22:665-671.

Swindale, D.N. and J.T. Curtis. 1957. Phytosociology of the larger submerged plants in Wisconsin lakes. Ecology 38:397-407.

Symbula, M. and F.P. Day. 1988. Evaluation of two methods for estimating belowground production in a freshwater swamp forest. Amer. Midl. Nat. 120: 405-415.

Sykora, J.L. 1984. Phytoplankton from four wetland sites in West Virginia. pp. 123-130 In: B.R. McDonald (ed.). Proc. of the Symposium on Wetlands of the Unglaciated Appalachian Region. West Virginia State Univ., Morgantown, WV.

Szaro, R.C., L.H. Simons, and S.C. Belfit. 1988. Comparative effectiveness of pitfalls and live-traps in measuring small mammal community structure. pp. 282-288 In: R.C. Szaro, K. E. Severson, D.R. Patton (tech. coords.). Management of Amphibians, Reptiles, and Small Mammals in North America. Gen. Tech. Rep. RM-166, USDA Forest Serv., Fort Collins, CO.

Tarplee, W.H., Jr. 1975. Studies of the Fish Populations in Two Eastern North Carolina Swamp Streams. North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Zool., Raleigh, NC. NTIS-PB269 104/6St.

Tate, R.L., III and R.E. Terry. 1980. Effect of sewage effluent on microbial activities and coliform populations of Pahokee Muck. J. Environ. Qual. 9(4):673-677.

Taylor, G.J. and A.A. Crowder. 1983. Accumulation of atmospherically deposited metals in wetland soils of Sudbury, Ontario. Water, Air, and Soil Poll. 19:29-42.

Taylor, D.W. and W.D. Davilla. 1986. Characterization of Riparian Vegetation in Selected Watersheds of the Upper San Joaquin River, California. BioSystems Analysis, Inc., Santa Cruz, CA.

Taylor, T.P. and D.C. Erman. 1979. The response of benthic plants to past levels of human use in high mountain lakes in Kings Canyon National Park, California, USA. J. Environ. Manage. 9:271-278.

Tebo, L.B. 1955. Bottom fauna of a shallow eutrophic lake, Lizard Lake, Pocohontas County. Amer. Midl. Nat. 54:89-94.

Teels, B.M., G. Anding, D.H. Arner, E.D. Norwood and N.E. Wesley. 1978. Aquatic plant-invertebrate and waterfowl associations in Mississippi. Proc. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agenc. 30:610-616.

Temple, Barker, & Sloane, Inc. 1989. Results: Workshop on environmental indicators for the surface water program. Alexandria, VA.

Temple, S.A. and J.A. Wiens. 1989. Bird populations and environmental changes: Can birds be bio-indicators? Amer. Birds 43(2):260-270.

Terborgh, J. 1989. Where Have All the Birds Gone? Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, N.J.

Terrell, C.R. and P.B. Perfetti. 1989. Water Quality Indicators Guide: Surface Waters. SCS-TP-161. USDA Soil Conservation Service, Washington, D.C. 129 pp.

Terry, W.S. and G.W. Tanner. 1984. Mineral concentration within freshwater marsh plant communities. J. Freshw. Ecol. 2:509-518.

Teskey, H.J. 1962. A method and appartus for collecting larvae of Tabanidae (Diptera) and other invertebrate inhabitants of wetlands. Proc. Ent. Soc. Ont. 92:204-206.

Teskey, R.O. and T.M. Hinckley. 1977a. Impact of water level changes on woody riparian and Wetland communities. Vol. I: Plant and Soil Responses to Flooding. FWS/OBS-77/58. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., 30 pp.

Teskey, R.O. and T.M. Hinckley. 1977b. Impact of water level changes on woody riparian and Wetland communities. VOl. III: The Central Forest Region. FWS/OBS-787/670. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., 36 pp.

Teskey, R.O. and T.M. Hinckley. 1978a. Impact of water level changes on woody riparian and Wetland communities, Vol. IV: Eastern deciduous forest region. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv. Serv., Washington, D.C. FWS/OBS-78/87. 54 pp.

Teskey, R.O. and T.M. Hinckley. 1978b. Impact of water level changes on woody riparian and Wetland communities. Vol. IV: Eastern Deciduous Forest Region. FWS/OBS-78/87. U.,S. Fish and Wildl. Serv., 36 pp.

Teskey, R.O. and T.M. Hinckley. 1978c. Impact of water level changes on woody riparian and Wetland communities. Vol. V : Northern Forest Region. FWS/OBS-78/88. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., 54 pp.

Teskey, R.O. and T.M. Hinckley. 1980. Impact of water level changes on woody riparian and Wetland communities. Vol. VII: Mediterranean Region, Western Arid and Sem-Arid Region. FWS/OBS-78/93. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., 54 pp.

Theriot, R.F. and D.R. Sanders. 1986. A Concept and Procedure for Developing and Utilizing Vegetation Flood Tolerance Indices in Wetland Delineation. Tech. Rep. Y-86-1. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Exp. Stn., Vicksburg, MS. 25 pp.

Theurer, F.D., I. Lines, and T. Nelson. 1985. Interaction Between Riparian Vegetation, Water Temperature, and Salmonid Habitat in the Tucannon River. Water Res. Bull. 21(1):53-64.

Thibodeau, F.R. and N.H. Nickerson. 1985. Changes in a wetland plant association induced by impoundment and draining. Biol. Conserv. 33:269-279.

Thorp, J.H., E.M. McEwan, M.F. Flynn, and F.R. Hauer. 1985. Invertebrate colonization of submerged wood in a cypress-tupelo swamp and blackwater stream. Amer. Midl. Nat. 113(1):56-68.

Tilman, D. 1987. Secondary succession and the pattern of plant dominance along experimental nitrogen gradients. Ecol. Monogr. 57:189-214.

Tiner, R.W., Jr. 1984. Wetlands of the United States: Current Status and Recent Trends. U.S. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Todt, D.E. 1989. Birds in the Ohio River Valley: Possible indicators of environmental quality? Ohio J. Sci. 89:192-195.

Toivonen, H. and S. Back. 1989. Changes in aquatic vegetation of a small eutrophicated and lowered lake (southern Finland). Ann. Bot. Fennici 26:27-38.

Thomas, G.L., S.L. Thiesfeld, S.A. Bonar, R.N. Crittenden, and G.B. Pauley. 1990. Estimation of submergent plant bed biovolume using acoustic range information. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 47:805-812.

Tonn, W.M. 1985. Density compensation in Umbra-Perca fish assemblages of northern Wisconsin Lakes. Ecol. 66(2):415-429.

Tonn, W.M. and J.J. Magnuson. 1982. Patterns in the species composition and richness of fish assemblages in northern Wisconsin lakes. Ecol. 63(4):1149-1165.

Traen, T.S. 1978. Effects of effluents from a variety of sewage treatment methods on pirmary productivity, respiration, and algal communities in artificial channels. Verh. Inter. Verein. Limnol. 20:1767-1771.

Tramer, E.J., and P.M. Rogers. 1973. Diversity and longitudinal zonation in fish populations of two streams entering a metropolitan area. Amer. Midl. Nat. 90(2):366-374.

Tremblay, J. and L. N. Ellison. 1979. Effects of human disturbance on breeding of black-crowned night herons. Auk 96:364-369.

Tucker, D.S. 1958. The distribution of some fresh-water invertebrates in ponds in relation to annual fluctuations in the chemical composition of the water. J. Anim. Ecol. 27:105-119.

Turner, M.G. 1988. Multiple disturbances in a Spartina alterniflora salt marsh: Are they additive? Bull. of the Torrey Bot. Soc. Club. 115(3):196-202.

Turner, L.J. and D.K. Fowler. 1981. Utilization of Surface Mine Ponds in East Tennessee by Breeding Amphibians. FWS/OBS-81/08. U.S. FIsh & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C. 20 pp.

Uetz, G.W., K.L. Van der Laan, G.F. Summers, P.A. Gibson, and L.L. Getz. 1979. The effects of flooding on floodplain arthropod distribution, abundance and community structure. Amer. Midl. Nat. 101(2):286-299.

USDA Soil Conservation Service. 1985. Duck and Pheasant Use of Water Bank Program Agreement Areas in East-Central South Dakota. SCS, Huron, South Dakota.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1983. The Effects of Wastewater Treatment Facilities on Wetlands in the Midwest. Appendix A: Technical Support Document. USEPA Region 5, Chicago. USEPA-905/3-83-002.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1983. Hydrographic, Water Quality, and Biological Studies of Freshwater Canal Systems, South Carolina, Mississippi, and Florida. Envir. Services Div., USEPA, Athens, GA. 77 pp.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1985. Freshwater Wetlands for Wastewater Management Handbook. Chap. 9: Assessment Techniques and Data Sources. USEPA Region 4, Atlanta, Georgia. USEPA 904/9-85-135.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1986. Quality Criteria for Water. U.S. Environ. Protection Agency, Off. Water Regula. & Standards, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1987. Surface Water Monitoring: A Framework for Change. U.S. Environ. Protection Agency, Off. Water & Off. Policy, Plan. & Eval., Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1988. Design Manual: Constructed Wetlands and Aquatic Plant Systems for Municipal Wastewater Treatment. EPA/625/1- 88/022. U.S. Environ. Protec. Agency, Off. Res. Dev., Center Environ. Res. Info., Cincinnati, OH.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1988. Inland Wetlands Research and Monitoring Plan, 1990-2000: An Ecosystems Strategic Planning Initiative. Draft. U.S. Environ. Protec. Agency, Environ. Res. Lab., Corvallis, OR.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1989a. The Nature and Extent of Ecological Risks at RCRA Facilities. Appendix B. Office of Policy Analysis, U.S. Environ. Protec. Agency, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1989b. Wetlands and 401 Certification: Opportunities and Guidelines for States and Eligible Indian Tribes. U.S. Environ. Protec. Agency, Office of Water, Washington, D.C. 64 pp.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). 1990. Biological Criteria: National Program Guidance for Surface Waters. U.S. Environ. Protec. Agency, Office of Water Regulations and Standards, Washington, D.C. 57 pp.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1984. The Ecological Impacts of Wastewater on Wetlands: An Annotated Bibliography. EPA-905/3-84-002. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Chicago, Illinois.

Urbanek, R.P. and W.D. Klimstra. 1986. Vertebrates and vegetation on a surface-mined area in southern Illinois. Trans. Illinois Acad. Sci. 79(3):175-187.

van der Valk, A.G. and C.B. Davis. 1976. Changes in the composition, structure, and production of plant communities along a perturbed wetland coenocline. Vegetatio 32(2):87-96.

van der Valk, A.G. and C.B. Davis. 1979. A reconstruction of the recent vegetational history of a prairie marsh, Eagle Lake, Iowa, from its seed bank. Aquat. Bot. 6:29-51.

van der Valk, A.G., S.D. Swanson, and R.F. Nuss. 1981. The response of plant species to burial in three types of Alaskan wetlands. Can. J. Bot. 61:1150-1164.

Vander Zouwen, W.J. 1983. Waterfowl and coot use and habitat changes in a southern Wisconsin refuge: 1947-1980. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Wisconsin, Madison.

van Dyk, L.P., C.G. Greeff, and J.J. Brink. 1975. Total population density of Crustacea and aquatic Insecta as an indicator of fenthion pollution of river water. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 14:426-431.

Van Haveren, B. 1986. Hydrologic properties. Pages 613-32 In: A.Y. Cooperrider, R.J. Boyd, and H.R. Stuart (eds.) Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. USDI, Bur. Land Manage. Serv. Center, Denver, CO.

Van Horne, B. 1983. Density as a misleading indicator of habitat quality. J. Wildl. Manage. 47:893-901.

Verner, J. 1985. Assessment of counting techniques. pp. 247-302 In: R.F. Johnston (ed.). Current Ornithology. Vol.2. Plenum Publishing Corp., New York.

Verner, J. and L.V. Ritter. 1985. A comparison of transects and point counts in oak-pine woodlands of California. Condor 87:47-68.

Vickers, C.R., L.D. Harris, and B.F. Swindel. 1985. Changes in herpetofauna resulting from ditching of cypress ponds in coastal plains flatwoods. For. Ecol. Manage. 10:13.

Vogt, R.C. and R.L. Hine. 1982. Evaluation of techniques for assessment of amphibian and reptile populations in Wisconsin. pp. 201-217 In: N.J. Scott, Jr. (ed.). Herpetological Communities. Wildl. Res. Rep. 13. Fish & Wildl. Serv., Washington, D.C.

Voigts, D.K. 1973. An odonate emergence trap for use in marshes. Proc. Iowa Acad. Sci.

Voigts, D.K. 1976. Aquatic invertebrate abundance in relation to changing marsh vegetation. Amer. Midl. Nat. 95(2):313-322.

Wagemann, R., N.B. Snow, D.M. Rosenberg, and A. Lutz. 1978. Arsenic in sediments, water, and aquatic biota from lakes in the vicinity of Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada. Arch. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 7:169-191.

Walker, J.L. 1985. Species diversity and production in pine-wiregrass savannas of the Green Swamp, North Carolina. Ph.D. Diss., Univ. North Carolina, Chapel Hill. 260 pp.

Walker, I.R., C.H. Fernando, and C.G. Paterson. 1985a. Associations of Chironomidae (Diptera) of shallow, acid, humic lakes and bog pools in Atlantic Canada, and a comparison with an earlier paleoecological investigation. Hydrobiologia 120:11-22.

Walker, M.D., R. Sniffen, and W. Sanville. 1985b. Fish utilization of an inunidated swamp-stream floodplain. U.S. Environ. Protection Agency, Environ. Res. Lab., Off. Res. & Dev. Corvallis, OR. EPA-600/3-85-046.

Walters, M.A., R.O. Teskey, and T.M. Hinckley. 1980. Impact of Water Level Changes on Woody Riparian and Wetland Communities, Vol. VIII: Pacific Northwest and Rocky Mountain Regions. U.S. Dept. Interior, Fish & Wildl. Serv., FWS/OBS-78/93. 60 pp.

Walters, C.J. and J.S. Collie. 1988. Experimental designs for estimating transient responses to management disturbances.Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:530-538.

Ward, R. 1988. Multivariate analyses of amphibian and reptilian distribution in Texas. Ph.D. Diss., Univ. North Texas, Denton. 462 pp.

Ware, F.J. and R.O. Gasaway. 1978. Effects of grass carp on native fish populations in two Florida lakes. Proc. Southeast. Assoc. Fish Wildl. Agenc. 30:324-335.

Warner, R.W. 1971. Distribution of biota in a stream polluted by acid mine-drainage. Ohio J. Sci. 71:202-215.

Washington, H.G. 1984. Diversity, biotic, and similarity indices: a review with special relevance to aquatic systems. Water Res. 18:653-694.

Washino, R.K. and Y. Hokama. 1968. Quantitative sampling of aquatic insects in a shallow-water habitat. Ann. Ent. Soc. Amer. 61:785-786.

Waterhouse, J.C. and M.P. Farrell. 1985. Identifying pollution related changes in chironomid communities as a function of taxonomic rank. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 42:406-413.

Watson, M.B., C.J. Killibrew, M.H. Schurtz, and J.L. Landry. 1981. A preliminary survey of Blind River, Louisiana. pp. 303-319 In: L. Krumholz (ed.). Warmwater Streams Symposium, Amer. Fish. Soc.

Webster, J.R. and E.F. Benfield. 1986. Vascular plant breakdown in freshwater ecosystems. Ann. Rev. Ecology and Systematics 17:567-594.

Wegener, W., V. Williams, and T.D. McCall. 1974. Aquatic macroinvertebrate responses to an extreme drawdown. Southeastern Assoc. Game and Fish Comm. 28:126-144.

Welch, H.E., J.K. Jorgenson, and M.F. Curtis. 1988. Measuring abundance of emerging Chironomidae (Diptera): Experiments on trap size and design, set duration, and transparency. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 45:738-741.

Welcomme, R.L. 1979. Fisheries Ecology of Floodplain Rivers. Longman, New York. 318 pp.

Weller, M.W. 1979. Density and habitat relationship of blue-winged teal nesting in northwestern Iowa. J. Wildl. Manage. 43:367-374.

Weller, M.W. 1986. Marshes. pp. 201-224 In: A.Y. Cooperrider, R.J. Boyd, and H.R. Stuart. Inventory and Monitoring of Wildlife Habitat. U.S.D.I. Bureau of Land Management, Denver, CO.

Weller, M.W. and C.S. Spatcher. 1965. Role of habitat in the distribution and abundance of marsh birds. Iowa Agr. Home Econ. Exp. Stn., Spec. Rep. No. 43, 31 pp.

Weller, M.W. and L. H. Fredrickson. 1974. Avian ecology of a managed glacial marsh. Living Bird 12:269-291.

Weller, M.W. 1989. Plant and water-level dynamics in an East Texas shrub/hardwood bottomland wetland. Wetlands 9(1):73-88.

Wentworth, T.R., G.P. Johnson, and R. L. Kologiski. 1988. Designation of wetlands by weighted averages of vegetation data: A preliminary evaluation. Water Resour. Bull. 24:389-396.

Wentsel, R., A. McIntosh, and W.P. McCafferty. 1978. Emergence of the midge Chironomus tentans when exposed to heavy metal contaminated sediment. Hydrobiologia 57:195-196.

Wentz, W.A. and R.L. Stuckey. 1971. The changing distribution of the genus Najas (Najadaceae) in Ohio. Ohio J. Sci. 71(5):292-301.

Westman, W.E. 1978. Measuring the inertia and resilience of ecosystems. BioScience 28:705-711.

Wetzel, R. 1975. Limnology. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. 743 pp.

Wheeler, W.E. and J.R. Marsh. 1979. Characteristics of scattered wetlands in relation to duck production in Southeastern Wisconsin. Tech. Bull. No. 116. Wisconsin Dept. of Nat. Res., Madison, WI.

White, D.C. 1985. Lowland hardwood wetland invertebrate community and production in Missouri. Arch. Hydrobiol. 103(4):509-533.

Whitehouse, J.W. 1971. Some aspects of the biology of Lake Trawsfyndd: A power station cooling pond. Hydrobiologia 38:253-288.

Whitehurst, D.K. 1981. Seasonal movements of fishes in an eastern North Carolina swamp stream. pp. 182-190 In: L. Krumholz (ed.). Warmwater Streams Symposium, Amer. Fish. Soc.

Whitlow, T.H. and R.W. Harris. 1979. Flood Tolerance in Plants: A State-of-the-Art Review. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Expt. Stn., Vicksburg, MS. Tech. Rep. E-79-2. 257 pp.

Whitton, B.A. 1971. Toxicity of heavy metals to freshwater algae: a review. Phykos 9: 116-125

Wickliff, C., H.J. Evans, K.K. Carter, and S.A. Russell. 1980. Cadmium effects on the nitrogen fixation system of red alder. J. Environ. Qual. 9:180-184.

Wiederholm, T. 1971. Bottom fauna and cooling water discharges in a basin of Lake Malaren. pp. 197-214 In: Rep. No. 51, Inst. Freshw. Res., Drottningholm, Sweden.

Wiederholm, T. and L. Eriksson. 1979. Subfossil chironomids as evidence of eutrophication in Ekoln Bay, central Sweden. Hydrobiologia 62:195-208.

Wiegleb, G. 1981. Application of multiple discriminant analysis on the analysis of the correlation between macrophyte vegetation and water quality in running waters of Central Europe. Hydrobiologia 79:91-100.

Wiener, J.G., P.J. Rago, and J.M. Eilers. 1983. Species composition of fish communities in Northern Wisconsin lakes: Relation to pH. pp. 133-146 In: G.Hendrey (ed.). Early Biotic Responses to Advancing Lake Acidification.

Wiggins, G.B., R.J. Mackay, and I.M. Smith. 1980. Evolutionary and ecological strategies of animals in annual temporary pools. Arch. Hydrobiol./ Suppl. 58:97-206.

Wilbur, R.L. 1974. Experimental dredging to convert lake bottom from abiotic muck to productive sand. Water Res. Bull. 10(2):372-383.

Wilcox, D.A. 1986. The effects of deicing salts on vegetation in Pinhook Bog, Indiana. Can. J. Bot. 64:865-874.

Wilcox, D.A. 1987. A model for assessing interdisciplinary approaches to wetland research. Wetlands 7:39-49.

Wilcox, D.A., S.I. Apfelbaum, and R.D. Hiebert. 1985. Cattail invasion of sedge meadows following hydrologic disturbance in the Cowles Bog Wetland Complex, Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Wetlands 4:115-128.

Wile, I. 1978. Environmental effects of mechanical harvesting. J. Aquat. Plant Manage. 16:14-20.

Wiley, M.J., R.W. Gorden. S.W. Waite, and T. Powers. 1984. The relationship between aquatic macrophytes and sport fish production in Illinois ponds: A simple model. N. Amer. J. Fish. Manage. 4:111-119.

Wilhm, J.L. 1965. Species diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in a stream receiving domestic and oil refinery effluents. Ph.D Dissertation, Oklahoma St. Univ., Stillwater.

Winner, R.W. 1984. The toxicity and bioaccumulation of cadmium and copper as affected by humic acid. Aquat. Tox. 5:267-274.

Winner, R.W., J.C. Van Dyke, N. Caris, and M.P. Farrel. 1975. Response of the macroinvertebrate fauna to a copper gradient in an experimentally polluted stream. Verh. Internat. Verein. Limnol. 19:2121-2127.

Winnell, M.H. and D.S. White. 1985. Trophic status of southeastern Lake Michigan based on the Chironomidae (Diptera). J. Great Lakes Res. 11:540-548.

Winner, R.W., M.W. Boesel, and M.P. Farrell. 1980. Insect community structure as an index of heavy-metal pollution in lotic ecosystem. Can. J. Fish. Aquat. Sci. 37:647-655.

Winterbourn, M.J. and K.J. Collier. 1987. Distribution of benthic invertebrates in acid, brown water streams in the South Island of New Zealand. Hydrobiologia 153:277-286.

Witter, J.A. and S. Croson. 1976. Insects and wetlands. In: D.L. Tilton, R.H. Kadlec, and C.J. Richardson (eds.). Proc. of a National Symposium on Freshwater Wetlands and Sewage Effluent Disposal. Univ. Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

Wolda, H. 1981. Similarity indices, sample size, and diversity. Oecologia 50:296-302.

Wolf, K. 1955. Some effects of fluctuating and falling water levels on waterfowl production. J. Wildl. Manage. 19(1):13-23.

Woods, R.D. 1975. Hydrobotanical Methods. University Park Press, Baltimore, MD. 173 pp.

Worth, D.A. 1983. Preliminary environmental responses to marsh dewatering and reduction in water regulation schedule in water conservation area 2A. South Florida Water Manage. Dist., Tech. Pub. 83-6.

Yan, N.D., G.E. Miller, I. Wile, and G.G. Hitchin. 1985. Richness of aquatic macrophyte floras of soft water lakes of differing pH and trace metal content in Ontario, Canada. Aquat. Bot. 23:27-40.

Yeager, L.E. 1949. Effect of Permanent Flooding on a River Bottom Timber Area. Bull. Ill-Nat. Hist. Surv. 25(2):33-65.

Zimmerman, J.H. 1988. A multi-purpose wetland characterization procedure, featuring the hydroperiod. pp. 31-49 In: Assoc. Wetland Mgrs.

Zischke, J.A., J.W. Arthur, K.J. Nordlie, R.O. Hermanutz, D.A. Standen, and T.P. Henry. 1983. Acidification effects on macroinvertebrates and fathead minnows in outdoor experimental channels. Water Res. 17:47-63.

Zismann, L. 1969. A light trap for sampling aquatic organisms. Israel J. Zool. 18:343-348.

Zizer, S.W. 1978. Seasonal variations in water chemistry and diversity of the phytophilic macroinvertebrates of three swamp communities in southeastern Louisiana. SW Nat. 23(4):545-62.

Zoltai, S.C. and J.D. Johnson. 1988. Relationships between nutrients and vegetation in peatlands of the prairie provinces. pp. 535-542. In: C.D.A. Rubec and R.P. Overend (eds.). Proc. Sympos. wetlands/Peatlands. Edmonton, Alberta.

Zullini, A. and E. Peretti. 1986. Lead pollution and moss-inhabiting nematodes of an industrial area. Water Air Soil Pollut. 27:403-410.

Jump to main content.