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Table 1-1. Examples of Instream, Riparian, and Upland Restoration Techniques

Category    Description

Instream  Reconfiguration of stream bed:  Dig a new channel for
   stream beds that have become braided or overly
   shallow.  The new channel should increase depth and
   structural complexity (thalweg cross section).

Instream  Restoration of channel course natural meander pattern:
   Remove any manmade structure or stop dredging
   practices that maintain channelization; actively
   redirect stream into meander pattern appropriate to
   hydrologic conditions.

Instream   Root wad/tree revetment:  A stump with roots still
   attached is placed  horizontally into the stream bank
   with the root end extending into the stream.

Instream  Live stakes, live fascines, brush mattresses, branch
   packings, brush layering, vegetated geogrids, and live
   cribwall:  These are all stream bank stabilization
   techniques that use vegetation bundles (e.g., willows)
   placed in stream banks in various patterns and means
   of attachment.  A particular method is selected based
   on soil type, bank slope, and hydrologic conditions.

Instream  Channel deflector and channel constrictor: Deflectors
   and constrictors are triangular-shaped structures,
   constructed from rock, gabion, or logs that extend
   into the stream to narrow and deepen streams in
   selected locations.  These techniques encourage
   meander, form pools, increase cover, and protect
   eroding banks.

Instream  Boulder cluster:  Large boulders are placed
   strategically in the stream channel to increase
   structural complexity, including eddies and small

Instream  Log drop structure:  This example is one of many
   structures that alter flow conditions to create small
   drops and pools.  The log drop consists of a log
   placed across the stream, with a V notch cut into the
   middle to direct flow.  Characteristics of these
   structures (e.g., height of the drop and width of the
   log) are carefully designed to prevent the obstruction
   of fish migration.

Riparian  Wetland restoration

Riparian  Re-establishing vegetation in the riparian corridor
   with native species best suited to current hydrologic
   and soil conditions (e.g., forested riparian buffers).

Riparian  Controlling the timing, location, and extent of water
   diversions from and irrigation return flows to stream 

Riparian  Constructing fences and gates in riparian corridor to
   control access of grazing livestock and other
   agricultural activities to selected locations along
   the stream.

Upland   Urban BMPs:  Retention devices (e.g., infiltration
   basins, trenches, dry wells, and porous pavement);
   vegetative controls (e.g., basin landscaping, filter
   strips, grassed swales, and wetlands); source controls
   (e.g., education regarding inappropriate discharges to
    storm drains and proper disposal of potential
   contaminants); erosion control (e.g., construction
   site management and controls); land-use planning
   (e.g., limiting direct connection of impervious area
   to waterbody); sewage overflow controls; urban
   stormwater retrofits.

Upland   Agricultural and grazing BMPs:  Erosion and sediment
   control(e.g., filter strips, grassed waterways, and
   conservation tillage); confined animal facility
   management (e.g., sediment basins); grazing management
   (e.g., livestock exclusion, alternative drinking
   locations, and stream crossings).

Upland   Forestry BMPs:  Streamside management areas that
   contain canopy species to control temperature and
   increase bank stability; road decommissionings;
   erosion control (e.g., grass-seeding, hydromulch,
   installation of road drainage structures such as
   water bars, dips, or ditches).

Upland   Point source effluent controls


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