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Water: Mixing Zones

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Subject Comparison Table (PDF) (50 K, 2 pp.)


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Application of criteria in mixing zones

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
USEPA. 1992. "Technical Guidance Manual for Performing Waste Load Allocations, Book III: Estuaries. Part 3: Use of Mixing Zone Models in Estuarine Waste Load Allocations. (PDF)" EPA 823-R-92-004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. (3.2 MB, 54 pp.)

Caution about MZs in some situations (e.g., near fish harvesting)

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.

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Determining WLAs

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
USEPA. 1992. "Technical Guidance Manual for Performing Waste Load Allocations, Book III: Estuaries. Part 3: Use of Mixing Zone Models in Estuarine Waste Load Allocations. (PDF)" EPA 823-R-92-004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. (3.2 MB, 54 pp.)

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Effluent characterization - bioconcentratable pollutants

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.

Great Lakes Rule

USEPA. 2000. Final Rule to Amend the Final Water Quality Guidance for the Great Lakes System to Prohibit Mixing Zones for Bioaccumulative Chemicals of Concern. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. 40 CFR Part 132 Federal Register, November 13, 2000, 65:67638. View Great Lakes Mixing Zone Initiative Page (HTML)

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Effluent characterization - specific pollutants

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.

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Effluent characterization - WET

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.

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Lethality to passing organisms

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
USEPA. 1994. "Water Quality Standards Handbook: Second Edition." EPA 823-B-94-005a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
USEPA. 1997. "User's Manual for CORMIX: A Hydrodynamic Mixing Zone Model and Decision Support System for Pollutant Discharges into Surface Waters." EPA 823/B-97-006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DC. (Originally printed in 1996.)

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Mixing zone analyses (e.g., models)

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
USEPA. 1992. "Technical Guidance Manual for Performing Waste Load Allocations, Book III: Estuaries. Part 3: Use of Mixing Zone Models in Estuarine Waste Load Allocations. (PDF)" EPA 823-R-92-004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. (3.2 MB, 54 pp.)
USEPA. 1996. "U.S. EPA NPDES Permit Writer's Manual. (PDF)" EPA 833-B-96-003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. (18.6 MB, 316 pp.)

Modeling Documents

USEPA. 2003. "Dilution Models for Effluent Discharges, 4th Edition (Visual Plumes). (PDF)" EPA 600-R-03-025. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Ecosystems Research Division, Athens, Georgia. (5.2 MB, 148 pp.)
USEPA. 1994. "Dilution Models for Effluent Discharges, 3rd Edition. (PDF)" EPA 600-R-94-086. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Pacific Ecosystems Branch, ERL-N, Newport, Oregon. (2.6 MB, 199 pp.)
USEPA. 1991. "CORMIX2: An Expert System for Hydrodynamic Mixing Zone Analysis of Conventional and Toxic Multiport Diffuser Discharges." (PDF) EPA 600-3-91-073. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, Washington, DC. (10 MB, 226 pp.) | View through NEPIS
USEPA. 1997. "User's Manual for CORMIX: A Hydrodynamic Mixing Zone Model and Decision Support System for Pollutant Discharges into Surface Waters." EPA 823/B-97-006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DC. (Originally printed in 1996.)
USEPA. 1990. "Expert System for Hydrodynamic Mixing Zone Analysis of Conventional and Toxic Single Port Discharges (CORMIX1)." Technical Report EPA 600-3-90-012. U.S. EPA Environmental Research Laboratory, Athens, GA. (2.3 MB, 266 pp.) | View through NEPIS
USEPA. 1997. "Compendium of Tools for Watershed Assessment and TMDL Development." (PDF) EPA 841-B-97-006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. (13.2 MB, 244 pp.) | View through NEPIS
USEPA 1985. "Initial Mixing Characteristics of Municipal Ocean Discharges: Volume 1 Procedures and Applications. (PDF)" EPA 600385073a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. (2.1 MB, 115 pp.)

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Recommends states specify if mixing zones are allowed

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
USEPA. 1994. "Water Quality Standards Handbook: Second Edition." EPA 823-B-94-005a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
USEPA. 1996. "Memorandum: EPA Guidance on Application of State Mixing Zone Policies in EPA-Issued NPDES Permits. (PDF)" U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Memo from Robert Perciasepe to Water Program Directors, dated August 6, 1996. (286 K, 7 pp.)
USEPA. 1996. "U.S. EPA NPDES Permit Writer's Manual. (PDF)" EPA 833-B-96-003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. (18.6 MB, 316 pp.)

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Size and/or area considerations

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
USEPA. 1994. "Water Quality Standards Handbook: Second Edition." EPA 823-B-94-005a. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.
USEPA. 1995. "Allocated Impact Zones for Areas of Non-Compliance. (PDF)" EPA 823-R-95-003. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. (2.4 MB, 72 pp.)
USEPA. 1992. "Technical Guidance Manual for Performing Waste Load Allocations, Book III: Estuaries. Part 3: Use of Mixing Zone Models in Estuarine Waste Load Allocations. (PDF)" EPA 823-R-92-004. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC. (3.2 MB, 54 pp.)
USEPA. 1997. "User's Manual for CORMIX: A Hydrodynamic Mixing Zone Model and Decision Support System for Pollutant Discharges into Surface Waters." EPA 823/B-97-006. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Science and Technology, Washington, DC. (Originally printed in 1996.)

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Special situations: lake, marine, estuarine

Technical and Policy Guidance Documents

USEPA. 1991. "Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control" EPA 505-290-001. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Water, Washington, DC.

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