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Water: Microbial

Thesaurus of Terms Used in Microbial Risk Assessment: Index

(terms are hyperlinked to their location in the text)

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A - B - C - D - E - F- G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

A

absolute risk
absorbed dose
absorption barrier
acceptable daily intake
acceptable risk
accuracy
acquired immunity
active immunity
activity pattern data
actual risk
acute
acute effect
acute exposure
acute exposure limits
acute toxicity
added risk
additional risk
additive dose
additive effect
adjusted exposure concentration
administered dose
adsorption
adverse effect
adverse health effect
aerosol
agent
agent of disease
aggregate exposure
aggregate risk
aggregate surveillance
airborne transmission
Akaikes information criterion
aleatory uncertainty
algorithm
ambient level
ambient measurement
amplification
anaerobic
analysis
analysis
analysis of variance
analysis phase
analysis plan
analytic epidemiology
analytical epidemiologic study
Anderson-Darling goodness of fit test
anecdotal data
anecdotal evidence
animal studies
antagonistic effect
anthropogenic
antibody
antigen
anti-microbial
applied dose
applied epidemiology
appropriate level of protection
approximation
arithmetic mean
assessment
assessment endpoint
assessment factor
assessment questions
association
assumption
asymptomatic
at-risk population
attack rate
attenuated (strain)
attenuation
attributable proportion
attributable risk
average daily dose
averaging time
avirulent

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B

background levels
background source
bacteremia
bacteria
bactericidal
baseline condition
Bayes’ theorem
Bayesian inference
Bayesian information criterion
Bayesian methods
benchmark concentration
benchmark concentration lower confidence limit
benchmark dose
benchmark dose lower confidence limit
benchmark response
benefit
benefit-cost analysis
Bernoulli distribution
Bernoulli trial
best case
best management practice
best professional judgment
beta distribution
beta error
bias
binomial distribution
bioaccumulation
bioaccumulation factor
bioaerosol
bioassay
bioavailability
bioconcentration
bioconcentration factor
biological contaminant
biological half-life
biological medium
biological monitoring
biologically based dose-response model
biologically effective dose
biologically plausible
biomagnification (biological magnification)
biomarker
biosensor
biosolid
bootstrap
bounding estimate
burden of illness

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C

cancer risk
cancer slope factor
carrier
case
case definition
case study
case-control epidemiologic study
case-control study
case-fatality ratio
case-study epidemiologic study
causality
ceteris paribus
characterization
characterization of exposure
characterization of human health effects
Chemical Risk Assessment Terms
chi-squared distribution
chi-squared goodness-of-fit test
chronic
chronic effect
chronic exposure
chronic health effects
chronic study
chronic toxicity
clinical illness
clinical trial
cluster
cluster analysis
cluster investigation
cocktail effect
coefficient of variation
cohort
cohort epidemiologic study
cohort study
coliforms
colonization
colony forming unit
commensal (commensalism)
community
comparative risk assessment
comparison value
composite sample
concentration
concentration-effect relationship
conceptual model
confidence interval
confounder
confounding factor
consumption rate
contact
contact volume
contagious
contagious distribution
contaminant
contamination
contingent valuation method
continuous time model
control
control group
control point
control processes
controllable variability
correlation
cost-benefit analysis
cost-effectiveness analysis
cost-of-illness analysis
cost-of-illness method
criteria
critical concentration
critical effect
critical limits
critical study
cross-contamination
cross-sectional study
culture
cumulative distribution function
cumulative dose
cumulative exposure
cumulative risk
cumulative risk assessment

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D

data integrity
data objectivity
data quality
data quality objective
data quality objectives process
data utility
death rate
decision tree
decontamination
dependent variable
descriptive epidemiologic study
detection limit
deterministic
deterministic analysis
deterministic model
developmental toxicity
diarrhea
direct contact
direct costs
direct medical costs
direct non-medical costs
disability-adjusted life year
discount rate
discounting
disease
disease surveillance
disinfection
distribution
distribution-free method
disutility costs
dose
dose adjustment
dose and dose-response
dose rate
dose-effect relationship
dose-related effect
dose-response
dose-response analysis
dose-response assessment
dose-response curve
dose-response relationship
Dose-Response Terms
dose-response, linear-quadratic
duration of infectiousness
dynamic model

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E

ecological risk
ecological risk assessment
effect
effect assessment
effective concentration
effective dose
effluent
emerging pathogens
empirical
empirical distribution
endemic
endpoint
endpoint
environmental fate model
environmental medium
EPA Terms
epidemic
epidemiology
Epidemiology and Surveillance Terms
epidemiology triad
epizootic
erlang distribution
error
estimated exposure dose
etiologic
excess death
excess lifetime risk
expected deaths
expected loss
experimental study
expert judgment
exponential growth (rate)
exposed
exposure
exposure
exposure analysis
exposure assessment
exposure concentration
exposure duration
exposure event
exposure factor
exposure frequency
exposure indicator
exposure investigation
exposure loading
exposure mass
exposure model
exposure modeling
exposure pathway
exposure period
exposure point
exposure profile
exposure route
exposure route versus exposure source
exposure scenario
exposure surface
Exposure Terms
exposure unit
exposure-response
exposure-response relationship
extra risk
extrapolation

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F

farm-to-table
fate
fate and transport
fate and transport analysis
fate and transport modeling
fault tree
fault tree analysis
fecal coliform
flora
follow-up study
fomite (plural; singular, fomes)
food ecology
food safety objective
foodborne illness
foodborne pathogen
Framework Terms
frank effect level
frank pathogen
frequency distribution
fungi (fungus)

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G

gamma distribution
gastroenteritis
Gaussian distribution
Gaussian distribution model
general population
geometric distribution
geometric mean
goodness of fit
goodness-of-fit test
grab sample
gray literature
guidance value

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H

half-life
hazard
hazard analysis critical control point system
hazard assessment
hazard characterization
hazard evaluation
hazard identification
hazard index
Hazard Occurrence Terms (Pathogen Occurrence Terms)
hazard quotient
hazard ratio
hazard/agent/stressor
hazards analysis
health assessment
health consultation
health effect
health endpoint
health outcome data
health outcomes study
healthy-years equivalents
hedonic wage studies
herd immunity
high-end exposure estimate
high-risk community
histogram
host
host characterization
Host Characterization and Health Effect Terms
host pathogen profile
host specificity
human capital approach
human equivalent concentration
human equivalent dose
human exposure evaluation
hypergeometric distribution

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I

illness
immune status
immune status
immunity
immunocompromised
incidence
incidence rate
incidence-based costs
incidental ingestion
incremental cost (analysis)
incubation period
independent action
independent variable
index case (proband)
indicator
indicator organisms
indicator, fecal
indirect contact
indirect costs
indirect exposure
individual risk
individual susceptibility
infectibility
infection
infectious agent
infectious dose
Infectious Hazard-Specific Terms
infectious pathogen
infectiousness
infective dosex
infectivity
ingestion
ingestion exposure
inhalation
inhalation exposure
inhalation unit risk
inoculum
input
instrument error
intake
intake rate
integrated exposure assessment
interferents
internal dose
interspecies dose conversion
invasiveness
isolate
iteration
iterative process

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K

key event
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

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L

laboratory studies
latency period
latent infection
lethal concentration-50
lethal dose
lethal dose-50
level of concern
lifetime exposure
likelihood
limit of detection
limit of quantification
limited evidence
linear correlation coefficient
linear dose response
linear model
linearized multistage procedure
lines of evidence
log inactivation
log reduction
logarithmic growth curve (phase)
logistic distribution
logistic model
logit model
lognormal distribution
log-probit model
longer-term exposure
longitudinal epidemiologic study
low-dose extrapolation
low-dose linear model
lower detection limit
lower limit on effective dose-10
lowest acceptable daily dose
lowest observed adverse effect level
lowest-observed effect level

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M

management goal
management objective
margin of exposure
margin of safety
marginal costs
Markov chain Monte Carlo
matching
mathematical modeling
maximum exposed individual
maximum individual risk
maximum likelihood estimate
maximum likelihood method
mean
measure of ecosystem and receptor characteristics
measure of effect
measure of exposure
measurement endpoint
measures of central tendency
mechanical vector
mechanism of action
mechanism of infection
median
median dose
medium (singular; plural, media)
medium intake rate
meta-analysis
metamodel calibration
methods
metric of exposure
microbial growth
microbial pesticides
microbiological criteria
microenvironment
microenvironment method
microorganism
minimum infective dose
mitigation
mobility
mode
mode of action
model
model boundaries
model detail
model structure
model uncertainty
model validation
modeling
modeling node
Modeling, Statistics, and Math Terms
modifying factor
monitoring
Monte Carlo technique
Monte-Carlo analysis
Monte-Carlo sampling
Monte-Carlo simulation
morbidity
morbidity rate
mortality
mortality rate
most probable number
multipathway assessment
multipathway exposure
multipathway risk
multiple exposure
multiple regression
multistage model
multistage Weibull model

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N

natural source
non-cancer risk
non-linear dose response
nonpoint source
non-threshold effect
non-threshold toxicant
no-observed-adverse-effect level
no-observed-effect level
normal distribution
nosocomial infection
notifiable disease
null hypothesis
nutritional status

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O

observational epidemiologic study
observational study
occurrence
odds ratio
one-hit model
opportunistic pathogen
opportunity costs
outbreak
outbreak data
outbreak, foodborne
outcome
outlier

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P

pandemic
parameter
parasite
Pareto distribution
pathogen
pathogen characterization
Pathogen Characterization or Infectious Disease Hazard Characterization Terms
pathogen occurrence
pathogenesis
pathogenicity
pathway specific risk
patient isolation
peer review
per capita intake rate
percentile
performance criteria
performance standard
permissible dose
permissible exposure limit
persistence
person-time
person-year
pharmacokinetic model
pharmacokinetics
physiologically based pharmacokinetic model
pica
planning and scoping
plaque forming unit
point estimate
point of departure
point of exposure
point-of-contact measurement of exposure
Poisson distribution
pollution
population
population at risk
population attributable risk
population dose
population exposure
population risk
potential dose
potential risk
power
practical quantitation limit
precision
predictive microbiology
preliminary assessment
premature death
presumptive count
prevalence
prevalence rate
prevalence survey
primary contact
primary effect
primary transmission
prion
probabilistic
probabilistic risk analysis
probabilistic risk assessment
probabilistic uncertainty analysis
probability
probability density function
probability distribution
probability of illness
probability of infection
probable error
probit analysis
probit model
problem formulation
Problem Formulation Terms
problem statement
process criteria
productivity loss
profile
proportionate mortality ratio
prospective epidemiologic study
prospective risk assessment
prospective study
protective immunity
protozoa
public health approach
public health context
public health surveillance
p-value

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Q

qualitative data
qualitative risk assessment
qualitative uncertainty estimate
quality assurance
quality assurance project plan
quality control
quality of life
quality-adjusted life year
quantitative risk assessment
quartiles
quorum sensing

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R

random error
random sample
random variable
range
rank correlation coefficient
rate
ratio
reasonable worst case
receptor
receptor population
reference concentration
reference dose
reference group
reference value
refined exposure concentration
refined method
regression analysis
relative risk
relative risk assessment
representative sample
representativeness
reproducibility
reservoir
residual risk
resistance
resources
respondent error
response
retrospective risk assessment
retrospective study
risk
risk analysis
risk assessment
risk assessment policy
risk assessment work plan
risk assessor
risk characterization
Risk Characterization, Risk Management, and Policy Terms
risk communication
risk description
risk difference
risk estimate
risk evaluation
risk factor
risk identification
risk management
risk management policy
risk manager
risk monitoring
risk profile
risk ratio
risk reduction
risk-based decision-making
risk-based targeting
risk-benefit analysis
route
route of exposure

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S

safe
safety
safety factor
safety limits
sample
sampling distribution
scenario
scenario uncertainty
screening method
screening-level risk assessment
seasonality
secondary attack rate
secondary effect
secondary infection
secondary spread
secondary spread/secondary attack rate/secondary transmission
secondary transmission
sensitive subgroups
sensitivity
sensitivity analysis
sequelae
seroepidemiology
severity of illness
severity of infection
short-term exposure
sigma g
slope factor
sludge
source
Sources Consulted
special populations
specific immunity
specificity
spore
stakeholder
standard deviation
standard error (of the mean)
standard geometric deviation
standard normal deviation
standardization
standardized mortality ratio
statistic
statistical significance
statistics
stepwise approach
stochastic model
stochastic uncertainty
stochastic variability
strain
stressor
stressor-response profile
subchronic exposure
subchronic study
subclinical infection
subjective judgment
subjective probability distribution
subpopulation
surrogate
surrogate data
surveillance
survey
susceptibility
susceptible subgroups
syndrome
synergism
synergistic effect
systematic error
systematic review
systemic effects
systemic toxicity

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T

target
target organ
target population
t-distribution
temporal variability
threshold
threshold effect
threshold limit value
threshold toxicant
tiered analysis
time profile
time-averaged exposure
time-integrated exposure
time-integrated sample
time-trend study
tolerable daily intake
tolerable intake
tolerance of pathogens to control
tools of microbial risk assessment
toxic substance
toxicant
toxicity
toxicity assessment
toxicity test
toxicodynamics
toxico-infectious pathogen
toxicokinetics
toxicology
toxin
toxinogenic pathogen
transmissible
transmission of infection
transparency
transparent
triangular distribution
type II error

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U

uncertainty
uncertainty analysis
uncertainty and variability
uncertainty factor
uniform distribution
unit risk
unit risk estimate
upper bound
upper percentile
uptake (absorption)

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V

validation
validity
variability
variable
variance
variation
vector
vegetative (bacterial) cell
vehicle
viable but not (non-) culturable (bacteria)
virulence
virulence factor
virulence-factor activity relationship
virus

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W

water quality
water quality target
water safety plan
waterborne pathogen
Weibull model
weight-of-evidence
willingness to pay
worst case

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Z

zero order analysis
zoonoses

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A - B - C - D - E - F- G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z

A

absolute risk
absorbed dose
absorption barrier
acceptable daily intake
acceptable risk
accuracy
acquired immunity
active immunity
activity pattern data
actual risk
acute
acute effect
acute exposure
acute exposure limits
acute toxicity
added risk
additional risk
additive dose
additive effect
adjusted exposure concentration
administered dose
adsorption
adverse effect
adverse health effect
aerosol
agent
agent of disease
aggregate exposure
aggregate risk
aggregate surveillance
airborne transmission
Akaikes information criterion
aleatory uncertainty
algorithm
ambient level
ambient measurement
amplification
anaerobic
analysis
analysis
analysis of variance
analysis phase
analysis plan
analytic epidemiology
analytical epidemiologic study
Anderson-Darling goodness of fit test
anecdotal data
anecdotal evidence
animal studies
antagonistic effect
anthropogenic
antibody
antigen
anti-microbial
applied dose
applied epidemiology
appropriate level of protection
approximation
arithmetic mean
assessment
assessment endpoint
assessment factor
assessment questions
association
assumption
asymptomatic
at-risk population
attack rate
attenuated (strain)
attenuation
attributable proportion
attributable risk
average daily dose
averaging time
avirulent

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B

background levels
background source
bacteremia
bacteria
bactericidal
baseline condition
Bayes’ theorem
Bayesian inference
Bayesian information criterion
Bayesian methods
benchmark concentration
benchmark concentration lower confidence limit
benchmark dose
benchmark dose lower confidence limit
benchmark response
benefit
benefit-cost analysis
Bernoulli distribution
Bernoulli trial
best case
best management practice
best professional judgment
beta distribution
beta error
bias
binomial distribution
bioaccumulation
bioaccumulation factor
bioaerosol
bioassay
bioavailability
bioconcentration
bioconcentration factor
biological contaminant
biological half-life
biological medium
biological monitoring
biologically based dose-response model
biologically effective dose
biologically plausible
biomagnification (biological magnification)
biomarker
biosensor
biosolid
bootstrap
bounding estimate
burden of illness

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C

cancer risk
cancer slope factor
carrier
case
case definition
case study
case-control epidemiologic study
case-control study
case-fatality ratio
case-study epidemiologic study
causality
ceteris paribus
characterization
characterization of exposure
characterization of human health effects
Chemical Risk Assessment Terms
chi-squared distribution
chi-squared goodness-of-fit test
chronic
chronic effect
chronic exposure
chronic health effects
chronic study
chronic toxicity
clinical illness
clinical trial
cluster
cluster analysis
cluster investigation
cocktail effect
coefficient of variation
cohort
cohort epidemiologic study
cohort study
coliforms
colonization
colony forming unit
commensal (commensalism)
community
comparative risk assessment
comparison value
composite sample
concentration
concentration-effect relationship
conceptual model
confidence interval
confounder
confounding factor
consumption rate
contact
contact volume
contagious
contagious distribution
contaminant
contamination
contingent valuation method
continuous time model
control
control group
control point
control processes
controllable variability
correlation
cost-benefit analysis
cost-effectiveness analysis
cost-of-illness analysis
cost-of-illness method
criteria
critical concentration
critical effect
critical limits
critical study
cross-contamination
cross-sectional study
culture
cumulative distribution function
cumulative dose
cumulative exposure
cumulative risk
cumulative risk assessment

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D

data integrity
data objectivity
data quality
data quality objective
data quality objectives process
data utility
death rate
decision tree
decontamination
dependent variable
descriptive epidemiologic study
detection limit
deterministic
deterministic analysis
deterministic model
developmental toxicity
diarrhea
direct contact
direct costs
direct medical costs
direct non-medical costs
disability-adjusted life year
discount rate
discounting
disease
disease surveillance
disinfection
distribution
distribution-free method
disutility costs
dose
dose adjustment
dose and dose-response
dose rate
dose-effect relationship
dose-related effect
dose-response
dose-response analysis
dose-response assessment
dose-response curve
dose-response relationship
Dose-Response Terms
dose-response, linear-quadratic
duration of infectiousness
dynamic model

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E

ecological risk
ecological risk assessment
effect
effect assessment
effective concentration
effective dose
effluent
emerging pathogens
empirical
empirical distribution
endemic
endpoint
endpoint
environmental fate model
environmental medium
EPA Terms
epidemic
epidemiology
Epidemiology and Surveillance Terms
epidemiology triad
epizootic
erlang distribution
error
estimated exposure dose
etiologic
excess death
excess lifetime risk
expected deaths
expected loss
experimental study
expert judgment
exponential growth (rate)
exposed
exposure
exposure
exposure analysis
exposure assessment
exposure concentration
exposure duration
exposure event
exposure factor
exposure frequency
exposure indicator
exposure investigation
exposure loading
exposure mass
exposure model
exposure modeling
exposure pathway
exposure period
exposure point
exposure profile
exposure route
exposure route versus exposure source
exposure scenario
exposure surface
Exposure Terms
exposure unit
exposure-response
exposure-response relationship
extra risk
extrapolation

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F

farm-to-table
fate
fate and transport
fate and transport analysis
fate and transport modeling
fault tree
fault tree analysis
fecal coliform
flora
follow-up study
fomite (plural; singular, fomes)
food ecology
food safety objective
foodborne illness
foodborne pathogen
Framework Terms
frank effect level
frank pathogen
frequency distribution
fungi (fungus)

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G

gamma distribution
gastroenteritis
Gaussian distribution
Gaussian distribution model
general population
geometric distribution
geometric mean
goodness of fit
goodness-of-fit test
grab sample
gray literature
guidance value

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H

half-life
hazard
hazard analysis critical control point system
hazard assessment
hazard characterization
hazard evaluation
hazard identification
hazard index
Hazard Occurrence Terms (Pathogen Occurrence Terms)
hazard quotient
hazard ratio
hazard/agent/stressor
hazards analysis
health assessment
health consultation
health effect
health endpoint
health outcome data
health outcomes study
healthy-years equivalents
hedonic wage studies
herd immunity
high-end exposure estimate
high-risk community
histogram
host
host characterization
Host Characterization and Health Effect Terms
host pathogen profile
host specificity
human capital approach
human equivalent concentration
human equivalent dose
human exposure evaluation
hypergeometric distribution

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I

illness
immune status
immune status
immunity
immunocompromised
incidence
incidence rate
incidence-based costs
incidental ingestion
incremental cost (analysis)
incubation period
independent action
independent variable
index case (proband)
indicator
indicator organisms
indicator, fecal
indirect contact
indirect costs
indirect exposure
individual risk
individual susceptibility
infectibility
infection
infectious agent
infectious dose
Infectious Hazard-Specific Terms
infectious pathogen
infectiousness
infective dosex
infectivity
ingestion
ingestion exposure
inhalation
inhalation exposure
inhalation unit risk
inoculum
input
instrument error
intake
intake rate
integrated exposure assessment
interferents
internal dose
interspecies dose conversion
invasiveness
isolate
iteration
iterative process

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K

key event
Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

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L

laboratory studies
latency period
latent infection
lethal concentration-50
lethal dose
lethal dose-50
level of concern
lifetime exposure
likelihood
limit of detection
limit of quantification
limited evidence
linear correlation coefficient
linear dose response
linear model
linearized multistage procedure
lines of evidence
log inactivation
log reduction
logarithmic growth curve (phase)
logistic distribution
logistic model
logit model
lognormal distribution
log-probit model
longer-term exposure
longitudinal epidemiologic study
low-dose extrapolation
low-dose linear model
lower detection limit
lower limit on effective dose-10
lowest acceptable daily dose
lowest observed adverse effect level
lowest-observed effect level

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M

management goal
management objective
margin of exposure
margin of safety
marginal costs
Markov chain Monte Carlo
matching
mathematical modeling
maximum exposed individual
maximum individual risk
maximum likelihood estimate
maximum likelihood method
mean
measure of ecosystem and receptor characteristics
measure of effect
measure of exposure
measurement endpoint
measures of central tendency
mechanical vector
mechanism of action
mechanism of infection
median
median dose
medium (singular; plural, media)
medium intake rate
meta-analysis
metamodel calibration
methods
metric of exposure
microbial growth
microbial pesticides
microbiological criteria
microenvironment
microenvironment method
microorganism
minimum infective dose
mitigation
mobility
mode
mode of action
model
model boundaries
model detail
model structure
model uncertainty
model validation
modeling
modeling node
Modeling, Statistics, and Math Terms
modifying factor
monitoring
Monte Carlo technique
Monte-Carlo analysis
Monte-Carlo sampling
Monte-Carlo simulation
morbidity
morbidity rate
mortality
mortality rate
most probable number
multipathway assessment
multipathway exposure
multipathway risk
multiple exposure
multiple regression
multistage model
multistage Weibull model

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N

natural source
non-cancer risk
non-linear dose response
nonpoint source
non-threshold effect
non-threshold toxicant
no-observed-adverse-effect level
no-observed-effect level
normal distribution
nosocomial infection
notifiable disease
null hypothesis
nutritional status

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O

observational epidemiologic study
observational study
occurrence
odds ratio
one-hit model
opportunistic pathogen
opportunity costs
outbreak
outbreak data
outbreak, foodborne
outcome
outlier

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P

pandemic
parameter
parasite
Pareto distribution
pathogen
pathogen characterization
Pathogen Characterization or Infectious Disease Hazard Characterization Terms
pathogen occurrence
pathogenesis
pathogenicity
pathway specific risk
patient isolation
peer review
per capita intake rate
percentile
performance criteria
performance standard
permissible dose
permissible exposure limit
persistence
person-time
person-year
pharmacokinetic model
pharmacokinetics
physiologically based pharmacokinetic model
pica
planning and scoping
plaque forming unit
point estimate
point of departure
point of exposure
point-of-contact measurement of exposure
Poisson distribution
pollution
population
population at risk
population attributable risk
population dose
population exposure
population risk
potential dose
potential risk
power
practical quantitation limit
precision
predictive microbiology
preliminary assessment
premature death
presumptive count
prevalence
prevalence rate
prevalence survey
primary contact
primary effect
primary transmission
prion
probabilistic
probabilistic risk analysis
probabilistic risk assessment
probabilistic uncertainty analysis
probability
probability density function
probability distribution
probability of illness
probability of infection
probable error
probit analysis
probit model
problem formulation
Problem Formulation Terms
problem statement
process criteria
productivity loss
profile
proportionate mortality ratio
prospective epidemiologic study
prospective risk assessment
prospective study
protective immunity
protozoa
public health approach
public health context
public health surveillance
p-value

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Q

qualitative data
qualitative risk assessment
qualitative uncertainty estimate
quality assurance
quality assurance project plan
quality control
quality of life
quality-adjusted life year
quantitative risk assessment
quartiles
quorum sensing

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R

random error
random sample
random variable
range
rank correlation coefficient
rate
ratio
reasonable worst case
receptor
receptor population
reference concentration
reference dose
reference group
reference value
refined exposure concentration
refined method
regression analysis
relative risk
relative risk assessment
representative sample
representativeness
reproducibility
reservoir
residual risk
resistance
resources
respondent error
response
retrospective risk assessment
retrospective study
risk
risk analysis
risk assessment
risk assessment policy
risk assessment work plan
risk assessor
risk characterization
Risk Characterization, Risk Management, and Policy Terms
risk communication
risk description
risk difference
risk estimate
risk evaluation
risk factor
risk identification
risk management
risk management policy
risk manager
risk monitoring
risk profile
risk ratio
risk reduction
risk-based decision-making
risk-based targeting
risk-benefit analysis
route
route of exposure

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S

safe
safety
safety factor
safety limits
sample
sampling distribution
scenario
scenario uncertainty
screening method
screening-level risk assessment
seasonality
secondary attack rate
secondary effect
secondary infection
secondary spread
secondary spread/secondary attack rate/secondary transmission
secondary transmission
sensitive subgroups
sensitivity
sensitivity analysis
sequelae
seroepidemiology
severity of illness
severity of infection
short-term exposure
sigma g
slope factor
sludge
source
Sources Consulted
special populations
specific immunity
specificity
spore
stakeholder
standard deviation
standard error (of the mean)
standard geometric deviation
standard normal deviation
standardization
standardized mortality ratio
statistic
statistical significance
statistics
stepwise approach
stochastic model
stochastic uncertainty
stochastic variability
strain
stressor
stressor-response profile
subchronic exposure
subchronic study
subclinical infection
subjective judgment
subjective probability distribution
subpopulation
surrogate
surrogate data
surveillance
survey
susceptibility
susceptible subgroups
syndrome
synergism
synergistic effect
systematic error
systematic review
systemic effects
systemic toxicity

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T

target
target organ
target population
t-distribution
temporal variability
threshold
threshold effect
threshold limit value
threshold toxicant
tiered analysis
time profile
time-averaged exposure
time-integrated exposure
time-integrated sample
time-trend study
tolerable daily intake
tolerable intake
tolerance of pathogens to control
tools of microbial risk assessment
toxic substance
toxicant
toxicity
toxicity assessment
toxicity test
toxicodynamics
toxico-infectious pathogen
toxicokinetics
toxicology
toxin
toxinogenic pathogen
transmissible
transmission of infection
transparency
transparent
triangular distribution
type II error

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U

uncertainty
uncertainty analysis
uncertainty and variability
uncertainty factor
uniform distribution
unit risk
unit risk estimate
upper bound
upper percentile
uptake (absorption)

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V

validation
validity
variability
variable
variance
variation
vector
vegetative (bacterial) cell
vehicle
viable but not (non-) culturable (bacteria)
virulence
virulence factor
virulence-factor activity relationship
virus

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W

water quality
water quality target
water safety plan
waterborne pathogen
Weibull model
weight-of-evidence
willingness to pay
worst case

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Z

zero order analysis
zoonoses

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