Water: Microbial

# Thesaurus of Terms Used in Microbial Risk Assessment: Index

(terms are hyperlinked to their location in the text)

**A - B - C - D - E - F- G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z**

### A

absolute risk

absorbed dose

absorption barrier

acceptable daily intake

acceptable risk

accuracy

acquired immunity

active immunity

activity pattern data

actual risk

acute

acute effect

acute exposure

acute exposure limits

acute toxicity

added risk

additional risk

additive dose

additive effect

adjusted exposure concentration

administered dose

adsorption

adverse effect

adverse health effect

aerosol

agent

agent of disease

aggregate exposure

aggregate risk

aggregate surveillance

airborne transmission

Akaikes information criterion

aleatory uncertainty

algorithm

ambient level

ambient measurement

amplification

anaerobic

analysis

analysis

analysis of variance

analysis phase

analysis plan

analytic epidemiology

analytical epidemiologic study

Anderson-Darling goodness of fit test

anecdotal data

anecdotal evidence

animal studies

antagonistic effect

anthropogenic

antibody

antigen

anti-microbial

applied dose

applied epidemiology

appropriate level of protection

approximation

arithmetic mean

assessment

assessment endpoint

assessment factor

assessment questions

association

assumption

asymptomatic

at-risk population

attack rate

attenuated (strain)

attenuation

attributable proportion

attributable risk

average daily dose

averaging time

avirulent

### B

background levels

background source

bacteremia

bacteria

bactericidal

baseline condition

Bayes’ theorem

Bayesian inference

Bayesian information criterion

Bayesian methods

benchmark concentration

benchmark concentration lower confidence limit

benchmark dose

benchmark dose lower confidence limit

benchmark response

benefit

benefit-cost analysis

Bernoulli distribution

Bernoulli trial

best case

best management practice

best professional judgment

beta distribution

beta error

bias

binomial distribution

bioaccumulation

bioaccumulation factor

bioaerosol

bioassay

bioavailability

bioconcentration

bioconcentration factor

biological contaminant

biological half-life

biological medium

biological monitoring

biologically based dose-response model

biologically effective dose

biologically plausible

biomagnification (biological magnification)

biomarker

biosensor

biosolid

bootstrap

bounding estimate

burden of illness

### C

cancer risk

cancer slope factor

carrier

case

case definition

case study

case-control epidemiologic study

case-control study

case-fatality ratio

case-study epidemiologic study

causality

ceteris paribus

characterization

characterization of exposure

characterization of human health effects

Chemical Risk Assessment Terms

chi-squared distribution

chi-squared goodness-of-fit test

chronic

chronic effect

chronic exposure

chronic health effects

chronic study

chronic toxicity

clinical illness

clinical trial

cluster

cluster analysis

cluster investigation

cocktail effect

coefficient of variation

cohort

cohort epidemiologic study

cohort study

coliforms

colonization

colony forming unit

commensal (commensalism)

community

comparative risk assessment

comparison value

composite sample

concentration

concentration-effect relationship

conceptual model

confidence interval

confounder

confounding factor

consumption rate

contact

contact volume

contagious

contagious distribution

contaminant

contamination

contingent valuation method

continuous time model

control

control group

control point

control processes

controllable variability

correlation

cost-benefit analysis

cost-effectiveness analysis

cost-of-illness analysis

cost-of-illness method

criteria

critical concentration

critical effect

critical limits

critical study

cross-contamination

cross-sectional study

culture

cumulative distribution function

cumulative dose

cumulative exposure

cumulative risk

cumulative risk assessment

### D

data integrity

data objectivity

data quality

data quality objective

data quality objectives process

data utility

death rate

decision tree

decontamination

dependent variable

descriptive epidemiologic study

detection limit

deterministic

deterministic analysis

deterministic model

developmental toxicity

diarrhea

direct contact

direct costs

direct medical costs

direct non-medical costs

disability-adjusted life year

discount rate

discounting

disease

disease surveillance

disinfection

distribution

distribution-free method

disutility costs

dose

dose adjustment

dose and dose-response

dose rate

dose-effect relationship

dose-related effect

dose-response

dose-response analysis

dose-response assessment

dose-response curve

dose-response relationship

Dose-Response Terms

dose-response, linear-quadratic

duration of infectiousness

dynamic model

### E

ecological risk

ecological risk assessment

effect

effect assessment

effective concentration

effective dose

effluent

emerging pathogens

empirical

empirical distribution

endemic

endpoint

endpoint

environmental fate model

environmental medium

EPA Terms

epidemic

epidemiology

Epidemiology and Surveillance Terms

epidemiology triad

epizootic

erlang distribution

error

estimated exposure dose

etiologic

excess death

excess lifetime risk

expected deaths

expected loss

experimental study

expert judgment

exponential growth (rate)

exposed

exposure

exposure

exposure analysis

exposure assessment

exposure concentration

exposure duration

exposure event

exposure factor

exposure frequency

exposure indicator

exposure investigation

exposure loading

exposure mass

exposure model

exposure modeling

exposure pathway

exposure period

exposure point

exposure profile

exposure route

exposure route versus exposure source

exposure scenario

exposure surface

Exposure Terms

exposure unit

exposure-response

exposure-response relationship

extra risk

extrapolation

### F

farm-to-table

fate

fate and transport

fate and transport analysis

fate and transport modeling

fault tree

fault tree analysis

fecal coliform

flora

follow-up study

fomite (plural; singular, fomes)

food ecology

food safety objective

foodborne illness

foodborne pathogen

Framework Terms

frank effect level

frank pathogen

frequency distribution

fungi (fungus)

### G

gamma distribution

gastroenteritis

Gaussian distribution

Gaussian distribution model

general population

geometric distribution

geometric mean

goodness of fit

goodness-of-fit test

grab sample

gray literature

guidance value

### H

half-life

hazard

hazard analysis critical control point system

hazard assessment

hazard characterization

hazard evaluation

hazard identification

hazard index

Hazard Occurrence Terms (Pathogen Occurrence Terms)

hazard quotient

hazard ratio

hazard/agent/stressor

hazards analysis

health assessment

health consultation

health effect

health endpoint

health outcome data

health outcomes study

healthy-years equivalents

hedonic wage studies

herd immunity

high-end exposure estimate

high-risk community

histogram

host

host characterization

Host Characterization and Health Effect Terms

host pathogen profile

host specificity

human capital approach

human equivalent concentration

human equivalent dose

human exposure evaluation

hypergeometric distribution

### I

illness

immune status

immune status

immunity

immunocompromised

incidence

incidence rate

incidence-based costs

incidental ingestion

incremental cost (analysis)

incubation period

independent action

independent variable

index case (proband)

indicator

indicator organisms

indicator, fecal

indirect contact

indirect costs

indirect exposure

individual risk

individual susceptibility

infectibility

infection

infectious agent

infectious dose

Infectious Hazard-Specific Terms

infectious pathogen

infectiousness

infective dosex

infectivity

ingestion

ingestion exposure

inhalation

inhalation exposure

inhalation unit risk

inoculum

input

instrument error

intake

intake rate

integrated exposure assessment

interferents

internal dose

interspecies dose conversion

invasiveness

isolate

iteration

iterative process

### K

### L

laboratory studies

latency period

latent infection

lethal concentration-50

lethal dose

lethal dose-50

level of concern

lifetime exposure

likelihood

limit of detection

limit of quantification

limited evidence

linear correlation coefficient

linear dose response

linear model

linearized multistage procedure

lines of evidence

log inactivation

log reduction

logarithmic growth curve (phase)

logistic distribution

logistic model

logit model

lognormal distribution

log-probit model

longer-term exposure

longitudinal epidemiologic study

low-dose extrapolation

low-dose linear model

lower detection limit

lower limit on effective dose-10

lowest acceptable daily dose

lowest observed adverse effect level

lowest-observed effect level

### M

management goal

management objective

margin of exposure

margin of safety

marginal costs

Markov chain Monte Carlo

matching

mathematical modeling

maximum exposed individual

maximum individual risk

maximum likelihood estimate

maximum likelihood method

mean

measure of ecosystem and receptor characteristics

measure of effect

measure of exposure

measurement endpoint

measures of central tendency

mechanical vector

mechanism of action

mechanism of infection

median

median dose

medium (singular; plural, media)

medium intake rate

meta-analysis

metamodel calibration

methods

metric of exposure

microbial growth

microbial pesticides

microbiological criteria

microenvironment

microenvironment method

microorganism

minimum infective dose

mitigation

mobility

mode

mode of action

model

model boundaries

model detail

model structure

model uncertainty

model validation

modeling

modeling node

Modeling, Statistics, and Math Terms

modifying factor

monitoring

Monte Carlo technique

Monte-Carlo analysis

Monte-Carlo sampling

Monte-Carlo simulation

morbidity

morbidity rate

mortality

mortality rate

most probable number

multipathway assessment

multipathway exposure

multipathway risk

multiple exposure

multiple regression

multistage model

multistage Weibull model

### N

natural source

non-cancer risk

non-linear dose response

nonpoint source

non-threshold effect

non-threshold toxicant

no-observed-adverse-effect level

no-observed-effect level

normal distribution

nosocomial infection

notifiable disease

null hypothesis

nutritional status

### O

observational epidemiologic study

observational study

occurrence

odds ratio

one-hit model

opportunistic pathogen

opportunity costs

outbreak

outbreak data

outbreak, foodborne

outcome

outlier

### P

pandemic

parameter

parasite

Pareto distribution

pathogen

pathogen characterization

Pathogen Characterization or Infectious Disease Hazard Characterization Terms

pathogen occurrence

pathogenesis

pathogenicity

pathway specific risk

patient isolation

peer review

per capita intake rate

percentile

performance criteria

performance standard

permissible dose

permissible exposure limit

persistence

person-time

person-year

pharmacokinetic model

pharmacokinetics

physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

pica

planning and scoping

plaque forming unit

point estimate

point of departure

point of exposure

point-of-contact measurement of exposure

Poisson distribution

pollution

population

population at risk

population attributable risk

population dose

population exposure

population risk

potential dose

potential risk

power

practical quantitation limit

precision

predictive microbiology

preliminary assessment

premature death

presumptive count

prevalence

prevalence rate

prevalence survey

primary contact

primary effect

primary transmission

prion

probabilistic

probabilistic risk analysis

probabilistic risk assessment

probabilistic uncertainty analysis

probability

probability density function

probability distribution

probability of illness

probability of infection

probable error

probit analysis

probit model

problem formulation

Problem Formulation Terms

problem statement

process criteria

productivity loss

profile

proportionate mortality ratio

prospective epidemiologic study

prospective risk assessment

prospective study

protective immunity

protozoa

public health approach

public health context

public health surveillance

p-value

### Q

qualitative data

qualitative risk assessment

qualitative uncertainty estimate

quality assurance

quality assurance project plan

quality control

quality of life

quality-adjusted life year

quantitative risk assessment

quartiles

quorum sensing

### R

random error

random sample

random variable

range

rank correlation coefficient

rate

ratio

reasonable worst case

receptor

receptor population

reference concentration

reference dose

reference group

reference value

refined exposure concentration

refined method

regression analysis

relative risk

relative risk assessment

representative sample

representativeness

reproducibility

reservoir

residual risk

resistance

resources

respondent error

response

retrospective risk assessment

retrospective study

risk

risk analysis

risk assessment

risk assessment policy

risk assessment work plan

risk assessor

risk characterization

Risk Characterization, Risk Management, and Policy Terms

risk communication

risk description

risk difference

risk estimate

risk evaluation

risk factor

risk identification

risk management

risk management policy

risk manager

risk monitoring

risk profile

risk ratio

risk reduction

risk-based decision-making

risk-based targeting

risk-benefit analysis

route

route of exposure

### S

safe

safety

safety factor

safety limits

sample

sampling distribution

scenario

scenario uncertainty

screening method

screening-level risk assessment

seasonality

secondary attack rate

secondary effect

secondary infection

secondary spread

secondary spread/secondary attack rate/secondary transmission

secondary transmission

sensitive subgroups

sensitivity

sensitivity analysis

sequelae

seroepidemiology

severity of illness

severity of infection

short-term exposure

sigma g

slope factor

sludge

source

Sources Consulted

special populations

specific immunity

specificity

spore

stakeholder

standard deviation

standard error (of the mean)

standard geometric deviation

standard normal deviation

standardization

standardized mortality ratio

statistic

statistical significance

statistics

stepwise approach

stochastic model

stochastic uncertainty

stochastic variability

strain

stressor

stressor-response profile

subchronic exposure

subchronic study

subclinical infection

subjective judgment

subjective probability distribution

subpopulation

surrogate

surrogate data

surveillance

survey

susceptibility

susceptible subgroups

syndrome

synergism

synergistic effect

systematic error

systematic review

systemic effects

systemic toxicity

### T

target

target organ

target population

t-distribution

temporal variability

threshold

threshold effect

threshold limit value

threshold toxicant

tiered analysis

time profile

time-averaged exposure

time-integrated exposure

time-integrated sample

time-trend study

tolerable daily intake

tolerable intake

tolerance of pathogens to control

tools of microbial risk assessment

toxic substance

toxicant

toxicity

toxicity assessment

toxicity test

toxicodynamics

toxico-infectious pathogen

toxicokinetics

toxicology

toxin

toxinogenic pathogen

transmissible

transmission of infection

transparency

transparent

triangular distribution

type II error

### U

uncertainty

uncertainty analysis

uncertainty and variability

uncertainty factor

uniform distribution

unit risk

unit risk estimate

upper bound

upper percentile

uptake (absorption)

### V

validation

validity

variability

variable

variance

variation

vector

vegetative (bacterial) cell

vehicle

viable but not (non-) culturable (bacteria)

virulence

virulence factor

virulence-factor activity relationship

virus

water quality

water quality target

water safety plan

waterborne pathogen

Weibull model

weight-of-evidence

willingness to pay

worst case

### Z

**A - B - C - D - E - F- G - H - I - J - K - L - M - N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z**

### A

absolute risk

absorbed dose

absorption barrier

acceptable daily intake

acceptable risk

accuracy

acquired immunity

active immunity

activity pattern data

actual risk

acute

acute effect

acute exposure

acute exposure limits

acute toxicity

added risk

additional risk

additive dose

additive effect

adjusted exposure concentration

administered dose

adsorption

adverse effect

adverse health effect

aerosol

agent

agent of disease

aggregate exposure

aggregate risk

aggregate surveillance

airborne transmission

Akaikes information criterion

aleatory uncertainty

algorithm

ambient level

ambient measurement

amplification

anaerobic

analysis

analysis

analysis of variance

analysis phase

analysis plan

analytic epidemiology

analytical epidemiologic study

Anderson-Darling goodness of fit test

anecdotal data

anecdotal evidence

animal studies

antagonistic effect

anthropogenic

antibody

antigen

anti-microbial

applied dose

applied epidemiology

appropriate level of protection

approximation

arithmetic mean

assessment

assessment endpoint

assessment factor

assessment questions

association

assumption

asymptomatic

at-risk population

attack rate

attenuated (strain)

attenuation

attributable proportion

attributable risk

average daily dose

averaging time

avirulent

### B

background levels

background source

bacteremia

bacteria

bactericidal

baseline condition

Bayes’ theorem

Bayesian inference

Bayesian information criterion

Bayesian methods

benchmark concentration

benchmark concentration lower confidence limit

benchmark dose

benchmark dose lower confidence limit

benchmark response

benefit

benefit-cost analysis

Bernoulli distribution

Bernoulli trial

best case

best management practice

best professional judgment

beta distribution

beta error

bias

binomial distribution

bioaccumulation

bioaccumulation factor

bioaerosol

bioassay

bioavailability

bioconcentration

bioconcentration factor

biological contaminant

biological half-life

biological medium

biological monitoring

biologically based dose-response model

biologically effective dose

biologically plausible

biomagnification (biological magnification)

biomarker

biosensor

biosolid

bootstrap

bounding estimate

burden of illness

### C

cancer risk

cancer slope factor

carrier

case

case definition

case study

case-control epidemiologic study

case-control study

case-fatality ratio

case-study epidemiologic study

causality

ceteris paribus

characterization

characterization of exposure

characterization of human health effects

Chemical Risk Assessment Terms

chi-squared distribution

chi-squared goodness-of-fit test

chronic

chronic effect

chronic exposure

chronic health effects

chronic study

chronic toxicity

clinical illness

clinical trial

cluster

cluster analysis

cluster investigation

cocktail effect

coefficient of variation

cohort

cohort epidemiologic study

cohort study

coliforms

colonization

colony forming unit

commensal (commensalism)

community

comparative risk assessment

comparison value

composite sample

concentration

concentration-effect relationship

conceptual model

confidence interval

confounder

confounding factor

consumption rate

contact

contact volume

contagious

contagious distribution

contaminant

contamination

contingent valuation method

continuous time model

control

control group

control point

control processes

controllable variability

correlation

cost-benefit analysis

cost-effectiveness analysis

cost-of-illness analysis

cost-of-illness method

criteria

critical concentration

critical effect

critical limits

critical study

cross-contamination

cross-sectional study

culture

cumulative distribution function

cumulative dose

cumulative exposure

cumulative risk

cumulative risk assessment

### D

data integrity

data objectivity

data quality

data quality objective

data quality objectives process

data utility

death rate

decision tree

decontamination

dependent variable

descriptive epidemiologic study

detection limit

deterministic

deterministic analysis

deterministic model

developmental toxicity

diarrhea

direct contact

direct costs

direct medical costs

direct non-medical costs

disability-adjusted life year

discount rate

discounting

disease

disease surveillance

disinfection

distribution

distribution-free method

disutility costs

dose

dose adjustment

dose and dose-response

dose rate

dose-effect relationship

dose-related effect

dose-response

dose-response analysis

dose-response assessment

dose-response curve

dose-response relationship

Dose-Response Terms

dose-response, linear-quadratic

duration of infectiousness

dynamic model

### E

ecological risk

ecological risk assessment

effect

effect assessment

effective concentration

effective dose

effluent

emerging pathogens

empirical

empirical distribution

endemic

endpoint

endpoint

environmental fate model

environmental medium

EPA Terms

epidemic

epidemiology

Epidemiology and Surveillance Terms

epidemiology triad

epizootic

erlang distribution

error

estimated exposure dose

etiologic

excess death

excess lifetime risk

expected deaths

expected loss

experimental study

expert judgment

exponential growth (rate)

exposed

exposure

exposure

exposure analysis

exposure assessment

exposure concentration

exposure duration

exposure event

exposure factor

exposure frequency

exposure indicator

exposure investigation

exposure loading

exposure mass

exposure model

exposure modeling

exposure pathway

exposure period

exposure point

exposure profile

exposure route

exposure route versus exposure source

exposure scenario

exposure surface

Exposure Terms

exposure unit

exposure-response

exposure-response relationship

extra risk

extrapolation

### F

farm-to-table

fate

fate and transport

fate and transport analysis

fate and transport modeling

fault tree

fault tree analysis

fecal coliform

flora

follow-up study

fomite (plural; singular, fomes)

food ecology

food safety objective

foodborne illness

foodborne pathogen

Framework Terms

frank effect level

frank pathogen

frequency distribution

fungi (fungus)

### G

gamma distribution

gastroenteritis

Gaussian distribution

Gaussian distribution model

general population

geometric distribution

geometric mean

goodness of fit

goodness-of-fit test

grab sample

gray literature

guidance value

### H

half-life

hazard

hazard analysis critical control point system

hazard assessment

hazard characterization

hazard evaluation

hazard identification

hazard index

Hazard Occurrence Terms (Pathogen Occurrence Terms)

hazard quotient

hazard ratio

hazard/agent/stressor

hazards analysis

health assessment

health consultation

health effect

health endpoint

health outcome data

health outcomes study

healthy-years equivalents

hedonic wage studies

herd immunity

high-end exposure estimate

high-risk community

histogram

host

host characterization

Host Characterization and Health Effect Terms

host pathogen profile

host specificity

human capital approach

human equivalent concentration

human equivalent dose

human exposure evaluation

hypergeometric distribution

### I

illness

immune status

immune status

immunity

immunocompromised

incidence

incidence rate

incidence-based costs

incidental ingestion

incremental cost (analysis)

incubation period

independent action

independent variable

index case (proband)

indicator

indicator organisms

indicator, fecal

indirect contact

indirect costs

indirect exposure

individual risk

individual susceptibility

infectibility

infection

infectious agent

infectious dose

Infectious Hazard-Specific Terms

infectious pathogen

infectiousness

infective dosex

infectivity

ingestion

ingestion exposure

inhalation

inhalation exposure

inhalation unit risk

inoculum

input

instrument error

intake

intake rate

integrated exposure assessment

interferents

internal dose

interspecies dose conversion

invasiveness

isolate

iteration

iterative process

### K

### L

laboratory studies

latency period

latent infection

lethal concentration-50

lethal dose

lethal dose-50

level of concern

lifetime exposure

likelihood

limit of detection

limit of quantification

limited evidence

linear correlation coefficient

linear dose response

linear model

linearized multistage procedure

lines of evidence

log inactivation

log reduction

logarithmic growth curve (phase)

logistic distribution

logistic model

logit model

lognormal distribution

log-probit model

longer-term exposure

longitudinal epidemiologic study

low-dose extrapolation

low-dose linear model

lower detection limit

lower limit on effective dose-10

lowest acceptable daily dose

lowest observed adverse effect level

lowest-observed effect level

### M

management goal

management objective

margin of exposure

margin of safety

marginal costs

Markov chain Monte Carlo

matching

mathematical modeling

maximum exposed individual

maximum individual risk

maximum likelihood estimate

maximum likelihood method

mean

measure of ecosystem and receptor characteristics

measure of effect

measure of exposure

measurement endpoint

measures of central tendency

mechanical vector

mechanism of action

mechanism of infection

median

median dose

medium (singular; plural, media)

medium intake rate

meta-analysis

metamodel calibration

methods

metric of exposure

microbial growth

microbial pesticides

microbiological criteria

microenvironment

microenvironment method

microorganism

minimum infective dose

mitigation

mobility

mode

mode of action

model

model boundaries

model detail

model structure

model uncertainty

model validation

modeling

modeling node

Modeling, Statistics, and Math Terms

modifying factor

monitoring

Monte Carlo technique

Monte-Carlo analysis

Monte-Carlo sampling

Monte-Carlo simulation

morbidity

morbidity rate

mortality

mortality rate

most probable number

multipathway assessment

multipathway exposure

multipathway risk

multiple exposure

multiple regression

multistage model

multistage Weibull model

### N

natural source

non-cancer risk

non-linear dose response

nonpoint source

non-threshold effect

non-threshold toxicant

no-observed-adverse-effect level

no-observed-effect level

normal distribution

nosocomial infection

notifiable disease

null hypothesis

nutritional status

### O

observational epidemiologic study

observational study

occurrence

odds ratio

one-hit model

opportunistic pathogen

opportunity costs

outbreak

outbreak data

outbreak, foodborne

outcome

outlier

### P

pandemic

parameter

parasite

Pareto distribution

pathogen

pathogen characterization

Pathogen Characterization or Infectious Disease Hazard Characterization Terms

pathogen occurrence

pathogenesis

pathogenicity

pathway specific risk

patient isolation

peer review

per capita intake rate

percentile

performance criteria

performance standard

permissible dose

permissible exposure limit

persistence

person-time

person-year

pharmacokinetic model

pharmacokinetics

physiologically based pharmacokinetic model

pica

planning and scoping

plaque forming unit

point estimate

point of departure

point of exposure

point-of-contact measurement of exposure

Poisson distribution

pollution

population

population at risk

population attributable risk

population dose

population exposure

population risk

potential dose

potential risk

power

practical quantitation limit

precision

predictive microbiology

preliminary assessment

premature death

presumptive count

prevalence

prevalence rate

prevalence survey

primary contact

primary effect

primary transmission

prion

probabilistic

probabilistic risk analysis

probabilistic risk assessment

probabilistic uncertainty analysis

probability

probability density function

probability distribution

probability of illness

probability of infection

probable error

probit analysis

probit model

problem formulation

Problem Formulation Terms

problem statement

process criteria

productivity loss

profile

proportionate mortality ratio

prospective epidemiologic study

prospective risk assessment

prospective study

protective immunity

protozoa

public health approach

public health context

public health surveillance

p-value

### Q

qualitative data

qualitative risk assessment

qualitative uncertainty estimate

quality assurance

quality assurance project plan

quality control

quality of life

quality-adjusted life year

quantitative risk assessment

quartiles

quorum sensing

### R

random error

random sample

random variable

range

rank correlation coefficient

rate

ratio

reasonable worst case

receptor

receptor population

reference concentration

reference dose

reference group

reference value

refined exposure concentration

refined method

regression analysis

relative risk

relative risk assessment

representative sample

representativeness

reproducibility

reservoir

residual risk

resistance

resources

respondent error

response

retrospective risk assessment

retrospective study

risk

risk analysis

risk assessment

risk assessment policy

risk assessment work plan

risk assessor

risk characterization

Risk Characterization, Risk Management, and Policy Terms

risk communication

risk description

risk difference

risk estimate

risk evaluation

risk factor

risk identification

risk management

risk management policy

risk manager

risk monitoring

risk profile

risk ratio

risk reduction

risk-based decision-making

risk-based targeting

risk-benefit analysis

route

route of exposure

### S

safe

safety

safety factor

safety limits

sample

sampling distribution

scenario

scenario uncertainty

screening method

screening-level risk assessment

seasonality

secondary attack rate

secondary effect

secondary infection

secondary spread

secondary spread/secondary attack rate/secondary transmission

secondary transmission

sensitive subgroups

sensitivity

sensitivity analysis

sequelae

seroepidemiology

severity of illness

severity of infection

short-term exposure

sigma g

slope factor

sludge

source

Sources Consulted

special populations

specific immunity

specificity

spore

stakeholder

standard deviation

standard error (of the mean)

standard geometric deviation

standard normal deviation

standardization

standardized mortality ratio

statistic

statistical significance

statistics

stepwise approach

stochastic model

stochastic uncertainty

stochastic variability

strain

stressor

stressor-response profile

subchronic exposure

subchronic study

subclinical infection

subjective judgment

subjective probability distribution

subpopulation

surrogate

surrogate data

surveillance

survey

susceptibility

susceptible subgroups

syndrome

synergism

synergistic effect

systematic error

systematic review

systemic effects

systemic toxicity

### T

target

target organ

target population

t-distribution

temporal variability

threshold

threshold effect

threshold limit value

threshold toxicant

tiered analysis

time profile

time-averaged exposure

time-integrated exposure

time-integrated sample

time-trend study

tolerable daily intake

tolerable intake

tolerance of pathogens to control

tools of microbial risk assessment

toxic substance

toxicant

toxicity

toxicity assessment

toxicity test

toxicodynamics

toxico-infectious pathogen

toxicokinetics

toxicology

toxin

toxinogenic pathogen

transmissible

transmission of infection

transparency

transparent

triangular distribution

type II error

### U

uncertainty

uncertainty analysis

uncertainty and variability

uncertainty factor

uniform distribution

unit risk

unit risk estimate

upper bound

upper percentile

uptake (absorption)

### V

validation

validity

variability

variable

variance

variation

vector

vegetative (bacterial) cell

vehicle

viable but not (non-) culturable (bacteria)

virulence

virulence factor

virulence-factor activity relationship

virus

water quality

water quality target

water safety plan

waterborne pathogen

Weibull model

weight-of-evidence

willingness to pay

worst case