Newsletter - March 2006
Note: The following summaries are based on articles from the press and from peer-reviewed publications, and they represent the opinions of the original authors. The views of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government.
Recent Advisory News
- Mercury levels in reservoir lower, yet still high health warnings for women remain in effect. IDAHO -- The Idaho Department of Environmental Quality warns that women who are pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning to become pregnant should limit consumption of fish from the Salmon Falls Creek reservoir because mercury levels in fish tissue is high. However, the results were far lower than levels found in tests in August 2005. Those tests, now considered invalid, showed mercury levels 150 times the highest levels found in the northeast US lakes.
Statewide, fish consumption advisories have been issued because of high levels of mercury in fish for nine water bodies. Two new ones, American Falls Reservoir in eastern Idaho and Priest Lake in North Idaho, were added in the last six months. Other Idaho water bodies with advisories include Brownlee Reservoir, C.J. Strike Reservoir, Lake Lowell, East Mill Creek, Lake Coeur d'Alene, and Lake Pend Oreille. The Salmon Falls area interests state officials since gold mines in nearby northern Nevada emit into the air approximately more mercury annually than 25 average coal-fired power plants. State officials suspect those mines may be a major source of the mercury detected in Idaho waters. In 2005, an Idaho National Laboratory scientist found that mercury levels in the air rose 30 to 70 percent higher than normal levels when winds blew from where the mines are located.
- Source: Knight-Ridder Tribune Business News - The Idaho Statesman - February 17, 2006
- Fish advisory issued for Priest Lake. Sandpoint, ID -- The Idaho Department of Health and Welfare advises pregnant women and small children to limit their consumption of lake trout from Priest Lake due to the level of mercury found in the fish. The mercury levels are not high enough to pose a health threat to the general public. However, the levels could affect unborn or small children because their central nervous systems are developing and particularly sensitive to mercury.
The recommendations include:
. Woman who are pregnant, breast-feeding, or planning to become pregnant should restrict their consumption of Priest Lake lake-trout to no more than four meals per month;
. Children under the age of 7 should not eat more than two meals per month of lake trout from Priest Lake;
. Women should abstain from eating other kinds of fish if they intend to eat Priest Lake lake-trout four times a month.
The Priest Lake trout advisory is not as strict as the one issued for Lake Pend Oreille lake trout in May 2005. The Pend Oreille advisory recommends that pregnant women should eat no more than two servings a month and children under 7 should refrain from eating more than one serving per month. The Pend Oreille advisory also urges the general public consume no more than three servings a month.
- Source: The Bonner County Daily Bee - February 02, 2006, http://www.bonnercountydailybee.com/articles/2006/02/02/news/news01.txt
- Significant Health Risk from PFC Levels in Minnesota Fish State Balks on Issuing Health Advisories. MINNESOTA -- Levels of chemical contamination in fish downstream from a 3M disposal site on the Mississippi River "pose a significant risk to humans and wildlife consuming these fish," according to new findings released today by Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility (PEER) and the Environmental Working Group. Despite some of the highest measurements ever recorded, the Minnesota Health Department is delaying issuance of any health advisory.
The chemicals are PFCs (perfluorochemical compounds) which bioaccumulate in living tissue and do not break down in the environment. The PFCs found in the latest tests were manufactured by 3M, which used the chemical in products such as Scotchgard, Teflon, Stainmaster and Gore-Tex. The latest findings are contained within a new report by Dr. Fardin Oliaei, who resigned earlier this month as the coordinator for the Minnesota Pollution Control Agency program on emerging contaminants. Dr. Oliaei's research indicate high PFC concentrations in both fish fillet and blood. He detected levels in fish "downstream and proximate to the 3M Cottage Grove plant discharge are extraordinarily high and are the highest level in blood of any animal tested worldwide."
On October 25, 2005, PEER asked the state Health Department to issue a health advisory based on state findings of record PFC levels in livers of fish caught downstream of the 3M site. In a November 9, 2005 response, the state agency noted: "PFC concentrations found in fish liver, [while] an indicator of fish's exposure to PFCs, they do not represent or predict the amount of PFCs in the fillet portion of the fish.Data on levels of PFCs in fish fillet tissue are needed to evaluate human health risk from consumption of these fish."
On February 8, 2006 state Senator John Marty, based on Dr. Oliaei's new findings, urged public health warnings: "During the last week, we have learned .. some fish samples from the Mississippi River that have been found to contain over 900 parts per billion . in the fillet sample. These data are extraordinarily high, and suggest a significant risk to people who may consume fish from the Mississippi."
- Source: Common Dreams News Center - February 24, 2006, http://www.commondreams.org/news2006/0224-07.htm
- Mercury levels in area fish studied Lake Berryessa, Putah Creek under review. CALIFORNIA -- The California EPA's Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment (OEHHA) is seeking public comments on draft fish advisories concerning elevated levels of mercury in some fish in Lake Berryessa in and Putah Creek, CA. A fact sheet and draft report containing the proposed advisories and OEHHA's evaluation of potential health threats posed by consumption of fish containing methylmercury are available for viewing and downloading on OEHHA's Web site at: http://www.oehha.ca.gov.
The draft Lake Berryessa advisory updates and replaces a 1987 state fish advisory for that water body. The draft Putah Creek advisory covers its entire length from Lake Berryessa to the Yolo Bypass of the Sacramento River. The draft advisories contain proposed "safe eating guidelines" for consumption of fish from Lake Berryessa and Putah Creek. One set of guidelines is for women of childbearing age and children age 17 and younger, who are particularly sensitive to methylmercury. A second set of guidelines is for women beyond their childbearing years and men. Where appropriate, the guidelines include "best choices" that identify fish with very low mercury levels that may be consumed up to three times a week or, in some cases, daily. Until final advisories are issued, OEHHA recommends that the public follow the guidance in the draft advisories. Consumption limits for women of childbearing age and children are one meal a week of black bass, bluegill or other sunfish, carp or goldfish, catfish (including bullheads), crappie, sucker, hitch or crayfish. For women beyond childbearing age and men, no more than one meal a week of black bass, crappie or hitch is suggested. The "best choices" for women of childbearing age and children at Putah Creek are trout or Sacramento blackfish, which may be consumed up to three times a week. The "best choices" for women beyond childbearing age and men are trout or Sacramento blackfish, which may be consumed daily, and bluegill or other sunfish, catfish (including bullheads), sucker, carp or goldfish, or crayfish, which may be consumed up to three times a week.
For Lake Berryessa, the draft safe-eating guidelines recommend consumption limits for women of childbearing age and children 17 years and younger of one meal a month of black bass, catfish, or chinook (king) salmon, or one meal a week of bluegill or other sunfish, trout or kokanee. Women beyond childbearing age and men should consume no more than one meal a week of black bass, catfish, or chinook salmon from Lake Berryessa.
For women beyond childbearing age and men, the "best choices" at Lake Berryessa are trout or kokanee, which may be consumed up to three times a week if no other fish are eaten that week. No fish sampled from Lake Berryessa contained mercury levels low enough for OEHHA to recommend "best choices" for women of childbearing age and children.
- Source: Daily Democrat - February 17, 2006.
- Illinois agency says fish in Wabash River high in mercury. ILLINOIS --The Wabash River has been added to a list of bodies of water in Illinois with a fish consumption advisory because of mercury levels. Women of childbearing age, children 15 and under, pregnant women,and nursing mothers should limit consumption of fish larger than 12 inches from the Wabash River and tributaries to one meal per month. Other fish in the Wabash River should be limited to one meal per week for those who are not on the sensitive list because of the elevated levels of methylmercury.
Indiana State Conservation Office has similar advisories in effect in Indiana. Fish consumption advisories from the entire length of the Wabash River are in the Department of Natural Resources fishing regulations for heavy metals, which include mercury.
- Source: The Tribune-Star - February 13, 2006, http://www.tribstar.com/local/local_story_044000631.html
- High levels of DDT found in Brantley fish. Officials warn against eating channel catfish, walleye caught in lake. Carlsbad, NM -- Data released by the New Mexico (NM) Department of Health, Department of Game and Fish and NM State Parks and the U.S. EPA show that elevated concentrations of total DDT, a banned pesticide, has been found in channel catfish and walleye in Brantley Lake. A fish consumption advisory due to mercury contamination is already in place for several fish species at Brantley Lake, which also advised limited eating of channel catfish and walleye. The new advisory recommends against eating any channel catfish and limiting eating of no more than 4 ounces of walleye.
NMED officials said that although only a small amount of data is currently available, the concentrations of DDT are high enough to cause health concerns for people of all ages. A composite sample from five channel catfish had 1,761 parts per billion, which is more than three times the EPA's "do not eat" guidance level of 550 ppb. A composite sample of five walleye had 485 ppb. The source of the DDT, which was banned from the US in 1972, is unknown.
- Source: Current-Argus Staff Writer - February 4, 2006, http://www.currentargus.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article
- Source: Current-Argus Staff Writer - February 4, 2006, http://www.currentargus.com/apps/pbcs.dll/article
- State adds Kankakee River to fish advisory list. ILLINOIS -- The Illinois Department of Public Health issued a fish advisory for carp on the Kankakee River from the Wilmington Dam to the Illinois River. Consumption should be limited to one meal per month because of elevated PCBs. Carp from the Kankakee between the Kankakee Dam and the Wilmington Dam should be limited to one meal per week. The advisories are aimed at "women of childbearing age, pregnant women, fetuses, nursing mothers and children younger than 15 years of age."
Other local additions with fish advisories were Waukegan's North Harbor (white sucker and sunfish/one meal per month); Midlothian Reservoir (carp smaller than 20 inches/one meal per week, carp larger than 20 inches/one meal per month); East Branch of the DuPage River (carp/one meal per week); Nippersink Creek (channel catfish/one meal per week); Salt Creek (carp smaller than 24 inches/one meal per week, carp larger than 24 inches/one meal per month). The complete advisory is at www.idph.state.il.us.
- Source: Chicago Sun-Times - February 3, 2006, http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/cst-nws-fish03.html
- Source: Chicago Sun-Times - February 3, 2006, http://www.suntimes.com/output/news/cst-nws-fish03.html
- CHEMICALS: PFOS found in Minnesota fish near former 3M plant, study finds. Minnesota lawmakers will meet today to discuss the results of a study by the Minnesota Department of Health last year that said fish caught in the Mississippi River near 3M's Cottage Grove plant contained high levels of the industrial chemical Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) in the blood of fish.
The study found a range of concentrations in the fish from a low of 139 parts per billion (ppb) to 29,600 ppb in one bass caught. Health regulations limit the acceptable amount of PFOS in drinking water at 1 ppb. State officials advise not to eat more than one fish from the river per month because of contamination from other chemicals, including PCBs and mercury, in the river.
- Source: (2006, February 27) SPOTLIGHT (Environment and Energy Publishing, LLC), Volume 10(9).
Current Events, News and Journal Articles
- PennFuture Praises DEP Proposal to Make Big Cuts in Toxic Mercury Pollution, Improving Pennsylvanians' Health. Harrisburg, PA -- Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (DEP) outlined a proposed state regulation that would require Pennsylvania coal-fired power plants to reduce mercury emissions beyond federally-required levels. This regulation comes in response to a petition asking for a 90 percent reduction in mercury pollution from power plants, filed in August 2004 by PennFuture, joined by a broad coalition of organizations statewide.
The proposed rule calls for action by 36 Pennsylvania power plants to reduce mercury pollution in two phases. The first phase will require 80 percent reduction in mercury pollution by 2010; the second phase requires 90 percent clean-up by 2015. The rule also provides incentives for those plants using Pennsylvania coal, and reserves federal allowances to plants that add scrubbers, use gasification or burn waste coal. The proposed Pennsylvania rule reduces more toxic mercury than the Bush Administration's plan.
Nearly 80 percent of the mercury released in Pennsylvania to air comes from the state's coal-fired power plants. Mercury from the plants' smokestacks comes back to the land and water in the rain, and is absorbed by plants, fish and wildlife. Eventually, mercury from eating fish accumulates in humans, where it can cause adverse health effects, including brain damage. Fish in Pennsylvania are heavily tainted by mercury, with advisories posted statewide warning anglers to restrict their consumption of local fish. The advisories were updated in December 2005, and are now more restrictive than the previous recommendation of one fish per week, due to apparent increases in mercury pollution. For this reason, sporting groups, including the Pennsylvania Federation of Sportsmen's Clubs and Pennsylvania Trout, have lobbied heavily for adoption of more stringent mercury controls.
- Source: Environment and Economy Business Wire - February 22, 2006
- Toxins found in fish for sale; High levels of mercury, PCBs turn up in state study - Experts differ on what is safe but agree seafood is healthful. WASHINGTON -- The first Department of Health survey of fish sold at Washington groceries shows that some levels of mercury or PCBs result in limits on consumption, while many other kinds of fish are safe to eat in moderate amounts.
The WA Department of Health monitors wild fish in local rivers and lakes for toxic chemicals, and issues warnings if it finds a problem. In this study, Health Department workers went to stores all over the state and bought canned tuna and fresh fillets from eight different kinds of fish. The fish was tested for mercury, PCBs and PBDEs.
The state study found that red snapper and halibut mercury levels were high enough to warrant limiting consumption, although there has been no government warning. The fish with the least mercury included catfish, pollock, salmon, flounder and cod. There continues to be debate about the safety of salmon. Those bought specifically for the study were labeled as chinook and had more than twice as much PCBs on average than any other species. The state says people can safely eat two servings of chinook a week.
Public health officials continue to balance the risks and benefits of eating fish. The Health Department worries that warnings about contaminants will scare people away from eating fish, which may cause people to miss a source of protein that is high in healthful fats thought to guard against heart and other diseases. Therefore, the health department prefers to steer people toward fish that are considered "healthier" choices, and to reduce PCB exposure by trimming off skin and grilling the fish.
- Source: The Seattle Times - February 16, 2006
- High Mercury Levels Found in Californians. Los Angeles, CA -- Californians who volunteered for a nationwide study of mercury contamination had among the highest levels, with nearly one-third of those tested having concentrations in their tissues that exceeded safe levels. Experts say that mercury exposure has little to do with proximity to pollution sources. Mercury concentrations in the study were strongly linked to how frequently the volunteers ate fish and other seafood, a finding documented in other studies worldwide.
For volunteers who ate no fish, the average mercury level in hair was 0.06 parts per million (ppm). Those who consumed eight or more servings per month averaged 0.90, just below the federal government's health guideline of 1 ppm. The Environmental Quality Institute at University of North Carolina-Asheville, which conducted the hair tests, found a direct relationship between people's mercury levels and the amount of store-bought fishes, canned tuna or locally-caught fish people consumed.
Californians consumed seafood as often as Illinois residents, but their mercury levels were twice as high. Seattle residents had lower mercury levels than San Franciscans, even though they ate seafood nearly twice as often. Fish caught in New York state and San Francisco Bay are much more contaminated than fish from the Midwest. Among fish and shellfish with low mercury levels are salmon, shrimp, catfish, cod, flounder, tilapia and trout. Small fish, including anchovies, herring and sardines, are especially nutritious and safe for pregnant women.
- Source: Los Angeles Times - February 9, 2006
- Dietary intake of PCDDs, PCDFs and dioxin-like PCBs, due to the consumption of various marine organisms from Korea. Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) residues were measured in 70 marine organisms (40 species) from Korean coastal waters. The PCDD/Fs residues in the organisms varied from 0.02 to 4.39 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet weight and the DL-PCBs residues varied from 0.008 to 6.0 pg WHO-TEQ/g wet weight. The highest PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs residues were recorded in crustaceans, followed by fish, cephalopods, bivalves and gastropods. Although the congener distributions of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs in the organism groups were different, the dominant contributors to the total TEQ concentrations in all groups were 2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzofuran (PeCDF), 1,2,3,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PeCDD) and PCB 126. The dietary intake of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs from the consumption of marine organisms in Korea was estimated to be 0.68 pg WHO-TEQ/kg body weight/day. The contribution of DL-PCBs to the total dietary intake from all organisms groups averaged 60%. The relative contribution of each organism group to the total dietary intake was, in descending order: fish, crustaceans, cephalopods, bivalves and gastropods. The current dietary intake was lower than those in countries with a similar dietary pattern to Korea, but higher than those in countries with smaller quantities of seafood consumption.
- Source: Moon, H.B., & Gon, O. (2006, February). Chemosphere, Volume 62(7).
- Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish and wastewater samples from an area of the Penobscot River in Central Maine. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants commonly used in textiles, foams and plastics. They behave similarly to the well-studied polychlorinated biphenyls. Growing evidence suggests they are widespread global environmental pollutants capable of bioaccumulation. Fish tissue samples collected from sites along the Penobscot River in central Maine, had total concentrations of tetra- to hepta-PBDEs which increased from upstream to downstream locations from 800 to 1810 ng/g lipid at the northernmost site to 5750-29 000 ng/g at the downstream sampling site. BDE-47, 99 and 100 were the predominant congeners found in the fish tissue. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are one of the potential sources of these compounds through effluent discharge and land spreading of biosolids. Influent, effluent, activated sludge and dewatered biosolids were collected and analyzed for PBDE congeners from a WWTP at Orono, Maine. PBDE congeners were detectable in effluent samples at concentrations from 0.31 to 0.90 µg/l, in the activated sludge at 1.32-3.8 µg/l and in the influent at 4.2-4.3 µg/l. The majority of the material was concentrated in the biosolids, at a total concentration of 2320-3530 µg/kg dry weight.
- Source: Anderson, T.dJ., & MacRae, J.D. (2006, February). Chemosphere, Volume 62(7).
- Dechlorane Plus, a Chlorinated Flame Retardant, in the Great Lakes. A highly chlorinated flame retardant, Dechlorane Plus (DP), was detected in ambient air, fish, and sediment samples from the Great Lakes region. This compound was confirmed by comparing its gas chromatographic retention times and mass spectra with those of authentic material. This compound exists as two gas chromatographically separable stereoisomers, the structures of which were characterized by one- and two-dimensional proton nuclear magnetic resonance. DP was detected in most air samples, even at remote sites. The atmospheric DP concentrations were higher at the eastern Great Lakes sites (NY and OH) than those at the western Great Lakes sites (MI and IL). At the eastern Great Lakes site, DP concentrations reached 490 pg/m3. DP atmospheric concentrations were comparable to those at the eastern Great Lakes sites. DP was also found in sediment cores from Lakes Michigan and Erie. The peak DP concentrations were comparable to concentrations in the sediment core from Lake Erie but were about 30 times lower than concentrations in the core from Lake Michigan. In the sediment cores, the DP concentrations peaked around 1975-1980. The surficial concentrations were 10-80% of peak concentrations. Higher DP concentrations in air samples from Sturgeon Point, NY, and in the sediment core from Lake Erie suggest that DP's manufacturing facility in Niagara Falls, NY, may be a source. DP was also detected in archived fish (walleye) from Lake Erie, suggesting that this compound is, at least partially, bioavailable.
- Source: Hoh, E., Zhu, L., & Hites, R.A. (2006). Environmental Science & Technology, Volume 40(4).
- Pilot survey of a broad range of priority pollutants in sediment and fish from the Ebro river basin (NE Spain). Priority organic pollutants were investigated in sediments and fish collected along the Ebro river basin to evaluate their occurrence, transport and bioavailability. Sediments were collected in 18 sites and two species of fish sampled at nine sites. The sampling sites covered industrial, urban and agricultural areas. Four methods were used to detect 20 organochlorine compounds (OCs), 8 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 3 organotin compounds, 2 alkylphenols and 40 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) from purified extracts. The contamination pattern was site specific and no downstream increase in concentration of pollutants was observed. Target compounds were detected in sediments at 0.01 to 2331 µg/kg dry weight, and only OCs and PBDEs accumulated in fish. Toxicological assessment based on predicted environmental levels revealed sites where adverse effects could occur. Organic pollutants were monitored in sediments and fish from the Ebro river basin.
- Source: Lacorte, S., Raldua, D., Martinez, E., Navarro, A., Diaz, S., Bayona, J.M., & Barcelo, D. (2006, April). Environmental Pollution, Volume 140(3).
- Relationship of serum levels of individual PCB, dioxin, and furan congeners and DDE with Great Lakes sport-caught fish consumption. Sport fish consumption is a potential route of exposure for environmentally persistent organochlorine contaminants. In this article, relationships are explored among individual congeners in a large cohort of frequent and infrequent sport fish consumers in the great lakes region. Blood samples obtained between 1993-1995 were analyzed for DDE and for 62 non-coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 4 coplanar PCBs, 8 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (dioxin), and 10 dibenzofuran (furan) congeners. All fish eaters and reference population had detectable levels of DDE, total noncoplanar PCBs, total coplanar PCBs, total dioxins, and total furans. Noncoplanar PCBs were higher in great lake sport fish consumers than in a reference population from the same geographic area, were associated with sport-caught fish consumption, and varied significantly by Great Lake. DDE, lower chlorinated dioxin and furan toxic equivalents (TEQs), and coplanar PCB TEQs were positively associated with noncoplanar PCBs but were not associated with sport fish consumption in the great lakes independent of PCB level. Highly chlorinated dioxin and furan congener TEQs were not significantly associated with noncoplanar PCBs or sport fish consumption. This suggests that participants acquired some of these TEQs from another source. In future epidemiologic studies, it may be important to include populations with higher organochlorine exposures as well as background exposures and to consider the effects of individual congeners or mixtures of congeners on outcomes.
- Source: Turyk, M., Anderson, H.A., Hanrahan, L.P., Falk, C., et. al. (2006, February). Environmental Research, Volume 100(2).
- A Review of Mercury in Seafood: Special Focus on Tuna. The effects of organic mercury exposure at high levels have been demonstrated in several large-scale poisonings, particularly those in Japan and Iraq in the 1950s, '60s and '70s. These events showed that organic mercury is a potent neurotoxin that is especially harmful to the developing nervous system. Since the most common human exposure to organic mercury is through fish consumption, several epidemiological studies have examined the relationship between maternal fish intake and health effects in humans, especially the fetus. Levels of mercury in fish vary depending on factors such as: trophic level in the food chain, size, and habitat location. It is important to gather information on mercury levels in different types of fish in various parts of the world. Results of recent studies have caused the FDA and the EPA to issue new advisories on the fish consumption for pregnant women and young children. However, there is concern that individuals will significantly reduce their fish consumption, thereby decreasing the potential health benefits of seafood. This review is designed to promote understanding of mercury levels in seafood and compiles up to date information on the following topics: background information on mercury; large scale mercury poisonings; epidemiology studies and risk assessment; and studies on mercury in tuna in different geographical locations.
- Source: Rasmussen, R., Nettleton, J., & Morrissey, M. (2006). Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology, Volume 14(4).
- Ploybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Different Tissue Types from Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tschawytscha). Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardants that share similar structure-toxicity relationships with PCBs. In this study, chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) were collected from the Clackamas River in Northwest Oregon. The objectives of this study are to report PBDE and PCB congener profiles from three different types of tissue composites collected in salmon and to investigate the reduction of contaminants by preparation methods. Total PBDEs were found at the highest concentrations in whole body samples (2.3 µg/kg), followed by fillet with skin (1.8 µg/kg) and fillet without skin (1.5 µg/kg). Total PCBs were approximately seven times higher compared to total PBDEs in all three tissue types. Whole body samples had the highest concentration of PCBs (15.3 µg/kg), followed by fillet with skin (12.6 µg/kg) and fillet without skin (10.2 µg/kg). The results of this study demonstrate that simple preparation methods (removing the organs, gut contents, side, belly and back fat, and skin, prior to ingestion) will reduce exposure to PCBs and PBDEs which accumulate in the fatty portions of fish.
- Source: Stone, D. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Volume 76(1).
- Zebra mussels reroute contaminant flow through food chain. New research in Lake Michigan's Calumet Harbor reveals that some smaller fish have higher PCB concentrations than predatory fish.
- Source: Pelley, J. Environmental Science & Technology, Volume 39(21).
Meetings and Conferences
- Toxics in Puget Sound: Connecting the Marine Environment with Human Health and the Economy Forum. April 5, 2006, Seattle, WA. For more information, visit http://pugetsound.org/toxics-forum.html.
- 13th National Tribal Environmental Council (NTEC) Conference. May 1-4, 2006, Temecula, CA. For more information visit http://www.ntec.org/Events/NTEC_Conference/2006ntec_natlconference/index.html.
- National Environmental Health Association 70th Annual Educational Conference & Exhibition. June 25-28, 2006, San Antonio, TX. For more information, visit http://www.neha.org/AEC/2006/index.html.
- Eighth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant (ICMGP). August 6-11, 2006, Madison, WI. For more information, visit www.mercury2006.org.
- American Fisheries Society (AFS) 136th Annual Meeting. September 10-14, 2006, Lake Placid, NY. For more information, visit AFS http://www.afslakeplacid.org/.
- Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (SEAFWA) Annual Conference. November 5-8, 2006, Norfolk, VA. For more information, visit SEAFWA http://www.seafwa.org/schedule.htm.
- American Public Health Association (APHA) 134th Annual Meeting. November 4-8, 2006, Boston, MA. For more information, visit APHA http://www.apha.org/meetings/.
- Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America 27th Annual Meeting. November 5-9, 2006, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. For more information, visit http://www.setac.org/montreal/.
- Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) 2006 Annual Meeting. December 3-6, 2006, Baltimore, MD. For more information, visit http://www.sra.org/events_2006_meeting.php.
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