Newsletter - June 2006
Note: The following summaries are based on articles from the press and from peer-reviewed publications, and they represent the opinions of the original authors. The views of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government.
Recent Advisory News
- Hooked on fishing, they don't read the health advisories, but experienced canal fishermen know just what is not safe to eat. FLORIDA -- This article compares the fish advisories issued by the Florida health department with common practices of experienced canal fishermen who do not read these advisories and found that these fishermen's good practices are consistent with the recommendations in the advisories. The state health officials advise people, especially children and pregnant women to avoid consumption of any predator fish such as bowfin, gar, and largemouth bass 14 inches or longer. The officials' website also lists specific waterbodies where people should avoid consumption of certain types of fish. A state official's toxicologist said that bottom feeders that do not eat other fish and fish that contains less than 1/15th of an ounce of mercury for every 2.2 pounds of fish are generally safe to eat. According to the advisories, largemouth bass over 14 inches, bowfin and gar should be avoided from the South New River Canal along Griffin Road and the Cypress Creek Canal in northern Broward and Alligator Alley. In addition, all predator fish from the Alligator Alley at Interstate 75 from the L-28 Canal to U.S. 27 should be avoided.
- Source: Miami Herald - April 30, 2006
- Regional roundup, state releases advisory on Mokelumne River fish. CALIFORNIA -- The California Environmental Protection Agency has released a draft fish advisory for the Lower Cosumnes and Mokelumne Rivers. It recommends women of childbearing age and children 17 or younger eat no more than one meal of fish caught from the Lower Mokelumne River per month. Women older then childbearing age and men are advised to eat no more than one meal of largemouth, smallmouth or spotted bass, or two meals of striped bass per month. The proposed advisories and the associated fact sheet can be found at http://www.oehha.ca.gov.
- Source: Lodi News - April 28, 2006
- Fishing season dates and regulations. WISCONSIN -- The game fish season for walleye, sauger and northern pike on inland waters in Wisconsin will open on May 6. The 2006-07 Guide to Wisconsin Hook and Line Fishing Regulations is available at all license outlets and on the DNR Web site. The guide references fish advisories, highlighting the health benefits but also recommending that all people who eat fish more than once a week regardless of the sources of fish to keep a record of the species of fish they consume and to avoid fish that have elevated mercury levels. The fish advisories are available at http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/org/water/fhp/fish/pages/consumption/. In general, panfish, young fish, and light tuna have lower levels of mercury while canned white tuna, swordfish, and game fish such as musky and walleye have higher levels.
- Source: County News - April 26, 2006
- Health Department updates cautions on eating New York fish. Albany, NY -- New York health officials continue to warn residents about consumption of most fish species in the Adirondack and Catskill mountains. The first advisory, issued last year, recommended that women of childbearing age and children under 15 avoid consumption of northern pike, pickerel, walleye, and large yellow perch. The general population is advised to limit consumption of all New York freshwater fish to one meal, or a half-pound serving per week. The state has added 16 new fish advisories to the list. One recommends that no channel catfish or white catfish from the lower Hudson River and New York Harbor should be eaten by the general public due to elevated PCB levels.
- Source: WSTM-TV - May 5, 2006
- New Jersey admits 970 rivers and lakes polluted. NEW JERSEY -- The Public Employees for Environmental Responsibility stated in a recent report that 970 water bodies across New Jersey are not suitable for fishing or swimming. Pollutants such as mercury, PCBs and dioxin have resulted in a rising number of fish and shellfish consumption advisories.
- Source: Common Dreams - May 4, 2006
- Neuse River fish affected by mercury advisory. NORTH CAROLINA -- North Carolina health officials have recently issued their largest fish advisory due to elevated levels of mercury. The new advisory for women of childbearing age and children under 15 recommends no consumption of 22 types of fish, and a one meal per week limitation of 34 other types of fish and seafood. Ocean fish species with elevated mercury levels include the Almaco jack, banded rudderfish, canned white tuna (albacore tuna), cobia, crevalle jack, greater amberjack, South Atlantic grouper, king mackerel, ladyfish, little tunny, marlin, orange roughy, shark, Spanish mackerel, swordfish, tilefish, and tuna (fresh/frozen). Freshwater species with high mercury levels include black fish (bowfish), catfish (caught wild), jackfish, largemouth bass, and warmouth.
- Source: Kinston Free Press - May 3, 2006
- Most harbor fish 'safe to eat'. AUSTRALIA -- Results from a recent test for dioxin levels in fish species from the Sydney Harbor indicated that concentrations in some pelagic species such as yellowtail, kingfish, and trumpeter whiting, are significantly lower than expected. Preliminary results from the study showed that 11 of the 70 fish samples tested so far exceeded the dioxin level of six picograms per gram (parts per trillion) recommended by the expert panel. The recent ban on consumption of all fish species from Sydney Harbor may be lifted, and a consumption advisory for recreational fisherman may be issued if the remaining test results show that the fish are safe for consumption. Elevated levels of dioxin are found in bottom feeders such as bream, prawns, mullet and squid, which contribute to the bulk of the commercial catch; therefore the ban on commercial fishing is likely to continue.
- Source: News.com.au - May 2, 2006
- Careful what you catch. Hillsdale, NY -- This article summarizes some of the findings and recommendations from a recent New York Department of Health report, "Chemicals in Sportfish and Game." This article includes fish consumption advisories for various species at specific locations such as Kinderhook Lake, Hudson River, Hoosic River, Dunham Reservoir, Dyken Pond, Valatie Kill and Nassau Lake. The advisories are developed based on annual tissue data collected from approximately 2,000 fish from 50 locations across the state. Some of the contaminants identified in fish species were polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), DDT, and cadmium.
- Source: Hillsdale Independent - May 16, 2006
- State officials advise against eating fish from Brantley Reservoir. Carlsbad, NM -- Recent tests conducted by New Mexican officials indicated elevated levels of DDT in four common fish species in the Brantley Reservoir, located in southeastern New Mexico. As a result, the state is recommending no consumption of any fish from the reservoir. Previous advisories recommended limiting consumption of some species, for example, it recommended four ounces of walleye per month. The new advisory is based on more recent data and therefore supersedes any previous fish consumption advisory for the reservoir.
- Source: Santa Fe New Mexican - May 17, 2006
- Beware PCB-laden Utah Lake carp. Salt Lake City, UT -- Utah officials have issued the first PCB-related fish consumption advisory for the state. The advisory recommends no consumption of Utah Lake carp for young children, pregnant women or women who are nursing or may become pregnant. In addition, it recommends only a single 8-ounce serving of Utah Lake carp per month for other adults. The elevated PCB concentrations in carp were uncovered through a restoration program that plans to remove approximately 7.5 million carp from Utah Lake. State officials said no information is currently available regarding the levels of PCBs in other fish species and that the state is planning to add the PCB tests to the state's 2006 to-do list.
- Source: Salt Lake Tribune - May 16, 2006
- Fish poison lies that risked lives. AUSTRALIA -- Internal documents from the January expert panel meeting regarding dioxin levels in Harbor seafood included additional consumption advice that was not included in the previous state recommendations. The state recommended that the public consume no more than 150g of Harbor fish per month. However, the documents indicated there were additional advisories on more polluted areas in which only one meal of Harbor fish per every two months was recommended and this information was not communicated to the public. In addition, the documents show that officials were aware of the elevated levels of dioxin in Harbor fish two years ago and yet commercial fishing was allowed to continue for an additional 18 months.
- Source: Daily Telegraph - May 18, 2006
Current Events, News and Journal Articles
- San Diego sushi tuna found high in mercury. San Diego, CA -- The public health group, GotMercury.Org, in partnership with San Diego KGTV television news recently tested sushi samples from some of the top sushi restaurants in San Diego and Los Angeles. The undercover investigation found that the average mercury level was 0.584 ppm and that elevated mercury levels were observed in 20 percent of the tuna samples. The public health analyst for GotMercury.Org said that their results affirm the need for women of childbearing age and children to avoid consumption of tuna served as sushi, sashimi, or ahi.
- Source: Environmental News Network - May 5, 2006
- The need for strategic environmental assessment of fishery products regulations in the Taiwan Strait: Taking health perspectives of organochlorine pesticides in seafood as an example. An integrated Health Impact Assessment/Strategic Environmental Assessment (HIA/SEA) framework for fishery trade agreements or regulations has been proposed and the procedures discussed in an effort to protect the health of Taiwan's residents. There is concern about high concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), including DDT, DDD, and DDE, in seafood in the Taiwan Strait. Many studies have been done over the years and the higher concentrations, especially in oysters in the Kinmen, Manchu area near China's Fu-Tzien Province, may be caused by the distribution of OCPs in China's vicinity. This study has analyzed and compared DDT, DDD, and DDE concentration data collected over the past two decades. Some concentration levels in the seafood were insignificant, like those caught in Taiwan's coastal areas, while other levels were as high as hundreds of ng/g-dw in Kimmen and Manchu, near China. This emphasizes the need for trade agreements or regulations as well as additional research to identify and examine the potential impacts on human health.
- Source: Liou, M., Yeh, S., Ling, Y., Chen, C. (2006, April). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Volume 12(2), 390-401.
- High average daily intake of PCDD/Fs and serum levels in residents living near a deserted factory producing pentachlorophenol (PCP) in Taiwan: influence of contaminated fish consumption. An investigation in southern Taiwan shows the extent of dioxin contamination from an abandoned pentachlorophenol plant. The average serum PCDD/Fs of nearby residents (62.5 WHO-TEQ [World Health Organization Toxicity Equivalency Quotient; equal to parts per trillion, or pptr]/g lipid) was higher compared to those living in the non-polluted area (22.5 and 18.2 pptr) (P < 0.05). Biota sample results show average PCDD/F of milkfish in sea reservoir (28.3 pptr) was higher than those in the nearby fish farm (0.15 pptr) and Tilapia and shrimp showed a similar trend. Further studies are suggested to determine the long term effects on the people living near the abandoned facility.
- Source: Lee, C., Lin, W., Liao, P., Su, H., Chen, H. (2006, May). Environmental Pollution, Volume 141(2), 381-386.
- Essential and toxic elements in seafood available in Poland from different geographical regions. Samples from edible parts of shellfish from three groups: crustaceans, mollusks, and surimi, were taken from the local Gdansk market. The samples were then dried, homogenized, and digested in an automatic microwave system and quantitatively analyzed for Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn, Co, Ni, Cr, Mg, Na, K, and Ca (F-AAS), Cd and Pb (GF-AAS), Se (HG-AAS), and Hg (CV-AAS). Detected element levels were compared to those in cod, herring, beef, chicken, eggs, and pork. An estimate of the recommended daily allowance (RDA) of essential elements and the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of toxic elements was made.
- Source: Kwoczek, M., Szefer, P., Hac, E. (2006, April). Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, Volume 54(8), 3015-3024.
- An evaluation of a reagentless method for the determination of total mercury in aquatic life. During the preparation of biological matrices for quantitative mercury analysis, multiple treatment steps (drying, chemical digestion, and oxidation) are often required. This could lead to systematic errors and poor analyte recovery. In this study, the Direct Mercury Analyzer (Milestone Inc., Monroe, CT) was used to measure total mercury in fish tissue by integrating steps of drying, sample combustion and gold sequestration with successive identification using atomic absorption spectrometry. Total mercury levels in wild-captured largemouth bass (n = 20) were assessed using the Direct Mercury Analyzer to examine internal variability between mercury concentrations in muscle, liver and brain organs. Direct analysis of total mercury measured in muscle tissue was strongly correlated with muscle tissue that was homogenized before analysis (r = 0.81, p < 0.0001). Additionally, results using this integrated method compared favorably (p < 0.05) with conventional cold vapor spectrometry with atomic absorbance and fluorescence detection methods. Mercury concentrations in brain were significantly lower than concentrations in muscle (p < 0.001) and liver (p < 0.05) tissues. This integrated method can measure a wide range of mercury concentrations (0-500 ug-g -1 [parts per million]) using small sample sizes. Total mercury measurements in this study are comparative to the methods (cold vapor) commonly used for total mercury analysis while reducing laborious sample preparation and expensive hazardous waste.
- Source: Haynes, S., Gragg, R., Johnson, E., Robinson, L., Orazio, C. (2006, May). Water, Air and Soil Pollution, Volume 172(1-4), 359-374.
- PCB, PCDD and PCDF residues in fin and non-fin fish products from the Canadian retail market 2002. During the spring of 2002, fish products (n = 129) from the Canadian retail market were collected and analyzed for PCB, PCDD and PCDF levels. Samples from eight fish groups (Arctic char, crab, mussels, oysters, salmon, shrimp, tilapia, and trout) from the wild and those raised on fish farms (as available) were collected. Domestic and imported fish products were collected; however, no significant difference in residue levels was observed between these groups. The highest concentration of Sigma PCBs (geometric mean 12.9 ng/g wet wt [parts per billion, ppb]) was in salmon, while crab samples had greatest Sigma PCDD/F levels (geometric mean 0.002 ng/g wet wt). Sigma PCB levels were below the Canadian guideline value for PCBs in fish and fish products (2000 ppb). Similarly, 2,3,7,8-TCDD levels in all fish products were below the Canadian guideline value (0.020 pptr).
- Source: Rawn, D., Forsyth, D., Ryan, J., Breakell, K., Verigin, V., Nicolidakis, H., Hayward, S., Laffey, P., Conacher, H. (2006, April). Science of the Total Environment, Volume 359(1-3), 101-110.
- New certified and candidate certified reference materials for the analysis of PCBs, PCDD/Fs, OCPs and BFRs in the environment and food. Three new matrix-type certified reference materials have been produced for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in sterilized and wet (shell) fish matrices, including PCBs in mussels (BCR-682), PCBs in herring (BCR-718), and non-ortho PCBs in chub (BCR-719). Additional feasibility studies have been carried out to evaluate the conditions under which production and certification of certified reference materials are feasible for brominated flame retardants (BFRs), chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans (PCDD/Fs), PCBs and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in various food, animal feed, and environmental matrices.
Results of these feasibility studies indicate that homogeneous and stable certified reference materials can be produced for all materials with the protocols developed during these studies. The user of these materials may need to apply simple rehomogenization of the material prior to use. The decreased precision or accuracy of applied analytical methods close to the method detection limit was found to affect the homogeneity and the stability for some low-concentration compounds studied. These certified reference materials are strong quality-assurance tools to support laboratories analyzing (non-ortho) PCBs in fish and shellfish samples at the low levels required in everyday routine samples. The materials from the feasibility studies can also support laboratories that analyze flame retardants, OCPs, PCDD/Fs and dioxin-like PCBs in the matrices investigated.
- Source: Van Leeuwen, S., Van Cleuvenbergen, R., Abalos, M., Pasini, A., Eriksson, U., Cleemann, M., Hajslova, J., de Boer, J. (2006, April). Trac-Trends in Analytical Chemistry, Volume 25(4), 397-409.
- Organochlorines and mercury in waterfowl harvested in Canada. Breast muscle samples were collected from 32 species of waterfowl from 123 sites across Canada and were analyzed for chlorobenzenes (CBz), chlordane-related compounds (CHL), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), DDT, mirex, dieldrin, PCBs and mercury. The compounds most frequently found above trace levels were Sigma DDT, Sigma CBz and Sigma PCB, while Sigma HCH and Sigma Mirex were detected the least often. The highest levels of contaminants were generally found in birds feeding at higher trophic levels such as sea ducks and mergansers. With the exception of a few samples of mergansers and long-tailed ducks from eastern Canada, which contained Sigma PCB concentrations of 1.0 - 2.4 mg kg (-1) [parts per million, ppm], Sigma PCB levels were less than 1 ppm. The highest Sigma CHL (0.10 ppm) was also found in mergansers from eastern Canada. Levels of total mercury in breast muscle were either low (< 1 ppm) or below detection limits with the exception of a few samples of mergansers from eastern Canada which contained mercury concentrations of 1.0 - 1.5 ppm. Health Canada determined that the organochlorine and mercury levels found in samples of breast muscle of ducks and geese analyzed in this study did not pose a health hazard to human consumers and therefore these waterfowl were safe to eat.
- Source: Braune, B., Malone, B. (2006, March). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 114(1-3), 331-359.
- Fish intake and serum levels of organochlorines among Japanese women. Background serum levels of selected organochlorine compounds were evaluated among Japanese women of reproductive age and investigated for linkages to lifestyle factors, especially dietary factors. Eighty Japanese women, aged 26-43, who complained of infertility problems and were confirmed not to have endometriosis, participated in a cross-sectional study. The serum levels of the total toxic equivalency quotient (TEQ), 18 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/ polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), 4 coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (cPCBs), 36 ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and 13 chlorinated pesticides or their metabolites were measured and data were collected on the women's age, residence, occupation, body mass index, smoking and alcohol habit and 6 dietary intakes (fish, meats, rice, vegetables, fruits and dairy products). The serum median level of total TEQ was 25.1 pg TEQ/g lipid, PCDDs/PCDFs/ cPCBs was 11.5 pmol/g lipid, PCBs was 0.46 nmol/g lipid, and total pesticides was 1.32 nmol/g lipid. The serum levels of total TEQ, PCDDs/PCDFs/cPCBs, PCBs and pesticides were positively associated with age and frequent fish consumption. Other lifestyle factors were not associated with serum organochlorine levels. This study suggests that organochlorines accumulate in the bodies of Japanese women who frequently consume fish during their reproductive years.
- Source: Tsukino, H., Hanaoka, T., Sasaki, H., Motoyama, H., Hiroshima, M., Tanaka, T., Kabuto, M., Turner, W., Patterson, D., Needham, L., Tsugane, S. (2006, April). Science of the Total Environment, Volume 359(1-3), 90-100.
- Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, biphenyls, naphthalenes and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the edible fish caught from the Baltic Sea and lakes in Finland. A total of 156 fish composite samples were collected from five areas of the Baltic Sea and from three lakes and analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The European Union's maximum permissible level for PCDD/Fs, 4 pg WHO-TEQ/g fresh weight (fw) [parts per trillion, pptr], was exceeded in salmon, river lamprey and Baltic herring. In other species from the Baltic Sea, the 90th percentile was 3.42 pptr. In the lake fish, the concentrations of PCDD/Fs, PCBs and PCNs were only 29-46% of those in the same species caught from the Baltic Sea, whereas the concentrations of PBDEs in the lake fish were as high as in the Baltic Sea fish. Dioxin-like PCBs contributed to the total dioxin-like toxicity of PCBs and PCDD/Fs by 49 +/- 12% in all the analyzed samples.
- Source: Isosaari, P., Hallikainen, A., Kiviranta, H., Vuorinen, P., Parmanne, R., Koistinen, J., Vartiainen, T. (2006, May). Environmental Pollution, Volume 141(2), 213-225.
- Accumulation of PCBs and organochlorine pesticides in river-caught European river lamprey (Lampetra fluviatilis) in Finland. Dioxin-like toxic effects to humans have been reported not only by PCBs with a dioxin like structure but also those with a different substitution pattern of chlorine atoms on the molecule. Specific accumulations of PCBs and their congeners in edible fish, including the lamprey L. fluvialtilis, in the southern portion of the Baltic Sea have been reported. These levels of PCBs ranged from 110 to 230 µg kg-1 [parts per billion, ppb]. Bioaccumulation of various toxic compounds in fish and bivalves from fresh and coastal waters in Finland have been reported, but no information has been collected on PCB and organochlorine residues in lamprey in the northern portion of the Baltic Sea. This research reports levels of various PCB congeners and some pesticides in river-caught lamprey from Finland. Federal agencies have set action limits for some residues in fish caught in Finland. In the present study, the maximum residue level in lampreys was 3 ppb for lindane (action level is 200 ppb); 87 ppb for total DDT (action level is 500 ppb); and 180 ppb for total PCBs (action level is 2,000 ppb). All measured residues were below their respective action limits. Although concentrations were higher in river lamprey than pike and Baltic herring, lamprey appear to be safe for consumption.
- Source: Mervirta, L., Kivisaari, M., Berg, S., Peltonen, K., Bjorkroth, J. (2006). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, Volume 76(3), 497-504.
- The health and ecological impacts of organochlorine pesticide pollution in China: Bioaccumulation of organochlorine pesticides in human and fish fats. Since the 1983 agricultural ban of organochlorine pesticide (OCP) use in China, the levels of OCPs in the environment and foods have declined significantly. In many parts of China, the levels today of these contaminants in soil, water, and agricultural products are well below 50 ug/kg (parts per billion, ppb). However, the current levels of pollution still pose a significant health risk to many people in China because OCPs are highly persistent and bioaccumulative substances. In an effort to corroborate this health concern, this preliminary study was conducted to monitor the levels of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCH) and dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane (DDT) in human and fish fats from southeast China. The data reconfirmed that pollution by HCH and DDT is a serious ecological problem in the study region, and likely in other parts of China as well. The HCH contents in the human samples were between 0.25 and 2.20 mg/kg (parts per million, ppm), with an average of 0.90 ppm. The DDT levels in these human samples were much higher, ranging from 0.54 to 9.22 ppm with an average of 3.5 ppm. The HCH and DDT content in grass carp samples averaged 0.03 and 0.67 ppm, respectively. The levels of bioaccumulation reflected in these human and fish samples were considered significant. It is therefore important for the health authorities to launch a large-scale investigation into the potential health and ecological impacts of OCP pollution in China. The data also suggested that the current national standards might need to be lowered for the levels of OCPs in China.
- Source: Shi, L., Shan, Z., Kong, D., Cai, D. (2006, April). Human and Ecological Risk Assessment, Volume 12(2), 402-407.
- Health risks in infants associated with exposure to perfluorinated compounds in human breast milk from Zhoushan, China. Recent studies have reported the ubiquitous distribution of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs), especially perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), in wildlife and human whole blood or serum. Samples of human breast milk from 19 individuals from Zhoushan were analyzed for PFC by modifying a previously established method. The two dominant chemicals detected in all of the milk samples were PFOS and PFOA. The concentrations of PFOS and PFOA ranged from 45 to 360 ng/L (parts per trillion, pptr) and 47 to 210 pptr, respectively. The maximum concentrations of other PFCs were 100 pptr for perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS), 62 pptr for perfluorononanoate (PFNA), 15 pptr for perfluorodecanoate (PFDA) and 56 pptr for perfluoroundecandate (PFUnDA). Statistically significant correlations between various PFCs suggested a common exposure source to humans. No statistically significant correlation was found between concentrations of either PFOS or PFOA and maternal age, weight, or infant weight. Rate of consumption of fish was found to be positively correlated with PFNA, PFDA, and PFUnDA concentrations.
- Source: So, M., Yamashita, N., Taniyasu, S., Jiang, Q., Giesy, J., Chen, K., Lam, P. (2006, May). Environmental Science & Technology, Volume 40(9), 2924-2929.
Meetings and Conferences
- National Environmental Health Association 70th Annual Educational Conference & Exhibition. June 25-28, 2006, San Antonio, TX. For more information, visit NEHA http://www.neha.org/AEC/2006/index.html.
- Eighth International Conference on Mercury as a Global Pollutant (ICMGP). August 6-11, 2006, Madison, WI. For more information, visit ICGMP http://www.mercury2006.org.
- American Fisheries Society (AFS) 136th Annual Meeting. September 10-14, 2006, Lake Placid, NY. For more information, visit AFS http://www.afslakeplacid.org/.
- New Mexico Environmental Health (NMEHC) Conference. October 29-November 1, 2006, Albuquerque, NM. For more information, visit NMEHC http://www.nhemc.net/. [broken link]
- Southeastern Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (SEAFWA) Annual Conference. November 5-8, 2006, Norfolk, VA. For more information, visit SEAFWA http://www.seafwa.org/schedule.htm.
- American Public Health Association (APHA) 134th Annual Meeting. November 4-8, 2006, Boston, MA. For more information, visit APHA http://www.apha.org/meetings/.
- Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) North America 27th Annual Meeting. November 5-9, 2006, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. For more information, visit SETAC http://www.setac.org/montreal/.
- Society for Risk Analysis (SRA) 2006 Annual Meeting. December 3-6, 2006, Baltimore, MD. For more information, visit SRA http://www.sra.org/events_2006_meeting.php.
- 2006 National Environmental Public Health (NCEH) Conference. December 4-6, 2006, Atlanta, GA. For more information, visit NCEH http://www.cdc.gov/nceh/conference/index.htm.
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