Water: Whole Effluent Toxicity
Short-Term Methods For Estimating the Chronic Toxicity of Effluents and Receiving Water to Freshwater Organisms
1.1 This manual describes chronic toxicity tests for use in the National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) Permits Program to identify effluents and receiving waters containing toxic materials in chronically toxic concentrations. The methods included in this manual are referenced in Table IA, 40 CFR Part 136 regulations and, therefore, constitute approved methods for chronic toxicity tests. They are also suitable for determining the toxicity of specific compounds contained in discharges. The tests may be conducted in a central laboratory or on-site, by the regulatory agency or the permittee.
1.2 The data are used for NPDES permits development and to determine compliance with permit toxicity limits. Data can also be used to predict potential acute and chronic toxicity in the receiving water, based on the LC50, NOEC, IC50 or IC25 (see Section 9, Chronic Toxicity Endpoints and Data Analysis) and appropriate dilution, application, and persistence factors. The tests are performed as a part of self-monitoring permit requirements, compliance biomonitoring inspections, toxics sampling inspections, and special investigations. Data from chronic toxicity tests performed as part of permit requirements are evaluated during compliance evaluation inspections and performance audit inspections.
1.3 Modifications of these tests are also used in toxicity reduction evaluations and toxicity identification evaluations to identify the toxic components of an effluent, to aid in the development and implementation of toxicity reduction plans, and to compare and control the effectiveness of various treatment technologies for a given type of industry, irrespective of the receiving water (USEPA, 1988c; USEPA, 1989b; USEPA 1989c; USEPA, 1989d; USEPA, 1989e; USEPA, 1991a; USEPA, 1991b; and USEPA, 1992).
1.4 This methods manual serves as a companion to the acute toxicity test methods for freshwater and marine organisms (USEPA, 2002a), the short-term chronic toxicity test methods for marine and estuarine organisms (USEPA, 2002b), and the manual for evaluation of laboratories performing aquatic toxicity tests (USEPA, 1991c). In 2002, EPA revised previous editions of each of the three methods manuals (USEPA, 1993a; USEPA, 1994a; USEPA, 1994b).
1.5 Guidance for the implementation of toxicity tests in the NPDES program is provided in the Technical Support Document for Water Quality-based Toxics Control (USEPA, 1991a).
1.6 These freshwater short-term toxicity tests are similar to those developed for marine and estuarine organisms to evaluate the toxicity of effluents discharged to marine and estuarine waters under the NPDES permit program. Methods are presented in this manual for three species of freshwater organisms from three phylogenetic groups. The methods are all static renewal type seven-day tests except the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum, test which lasts four days.
1.7 The three species for which test methods are provided are the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; the daphnid, Ceriodaphnia dubia; and the green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum.
1.7.1 Two of the methods incorporate the chronic endpoint of growth in addition to lethality and one incorporates reproduction. The fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas, embryo-larval survival and teratogenicity test incorporates teratogenic effects in addition to lethality. The green alga, Selenastrum capricornutum, growth test has the advantage of a relatively short exposure period (96 h).
1.8 The validity of the freshwater chronic methods in predicting adverse ecological impacts of toxic discharges was demonstrated in field studies (USEPA, 1984; USEPA, 1985b; USEPA, 1985c; USEPA, 1985d; USEPA, 1986a; USEPA, 1986b; USEPA, 1986c; USEPA, 1986d; Birge et al., 1989; and Eagleson et al., 1990).
1.9 The use of any test species or test conditions other than those described in the methods summary tables in this manual shall be subject to application and approval of alternate test procedures under 40 CFR 136.4 and 40 CFR 136.5.
1.10 These methods are restricted to use by, or under the supervision of, analysts experienced in the use or conduct of aquatic toxicity tests and the interpretation of data from aquatic toxicity testing. Each analyst must demonstrate the ability to generate acceptable test results with these methods using the procedures described in this methods manual.
1.11 This manual was prepared in the established EMSL-Cincinnati format (USEPA, 1983).