Water: Contaminated Sediments
Contaminated Sediment News
Note: EPA no longer updates this information, but it may be useful as a reference or resource.
Issue 34 - February 2003
Welcome to the Contaminated Sediments News, a monthly review of recent journal articles, issues in the press, upcoming conferences, and other news. This website replaces the Contaminated Sediments Newsletter, which was published quarterly through the summer of 2000. Items for the CS News are chosen from the results of a detailed search of a number of scientific and technical publication databases, as well as from searches of media publication databases (including newspapers and magazines).
Check back to this site frequently to see each new issue of the Contaminated Sediments News, and visit the CS News Archive to find past issues.
Note: The summaries found on this website are based on articles from the press and from peer-reviewed publications, and they represent the opinions of the original authors. The views of authors expressed herein do not necessarily state or reflect those of the United States Government, and shall not be used for advertising or product endorsement purposes. Reference herein to any specific commercial products, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacturer, or otherwise, does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement, recommendation, or favoring by the United States Government.
Guidance Manuals to Support the Assessment of Contaminated Sediments in Freshwater Ecosystems
MacDonald DD, Ingersoll CG. 2002a. A guidance manual to support the assessment of contaminated sediments in freshwater ecosystems. Volume I: An ecosystem-based framework for assessing and managing contaminated sediments, (PDF) EPA-905-B02-001-A, USEPA Great Lakes National Program, Office, Chicago, IL.
MacDonald DD, Ingersoll CG. 2002b. A guidance manual to support the assessment of contaminated sediments in freshwater ecosystems. Volume II: Design and implementation of sediment quality investigations, (PDF) EPA-905-B02-001-B, USEPA Great Lakes National Program Office, Chicago, IL.
Ingersoll CG, MacDonald DD. 2002. A guidance manual to support the assessment of contaminated sediments in freshwater ecosystems. Volume III: Interpretation of the results of sediment quality investigations, (PDF) EPA-905-B02-001-C, USEPA Great Lakes National Program Office, Chicago, IL.
Please contact Chris Ingersoll at email@example.com (573-876-1819) or Don MacDonald at firstname.lastname@example.org (250-729-9623) if you would like to receive paper copy or electronic copy of these reports through regular mail.
- Selective extractions to assess the biogeochemically relevant fractionation of inorganic mercury in sediments and soils – In this article, the authors show a new process for sequential selective extractions (SSEs) for Hg in geological solids. This study separated mercury into fractions that make 'biogeochemical' sense, rather than more traditional methods that speciate into specific compounds. Experiments clarified the impacts of extraction time, solids-to-liquid ratio, and alternate solvents in natural samples, reference materials, and pure compounds. HgS (red and black), HgCl2, Hg0, Hg2Cl2, HgSe, HgO, Hg(II) adsorbed on goethite, Hg-humate, and gold amalgamated Hg were the compounds tested. Based on these findings, a five-step sequence of extractions was determined to divide the compounds into biogeochemically distinct categories, which were identified as F1, F2, F3, F4, and F5 fractions. Depending on the reagent concentrations used, method blanks and method detection limits were attained for the different analytical fractions. Precision varied from 2 to 8% for the major fractions in a sample, increasing to 2-40% for fractions comprising sediments, revealing that inorganic Hg extracted in the F3 fraction is most strongly associated with methylation potential. In conclusion, the majority of Hg present was located either in the F3 or F5 fractions in most natural and sediment incubation samples.
Source: Bloom, N.S. et al.; Selective extractions to assess the biogeochemically relevant fractionation of inorganic mercury in sediments and soils; Analytica Chimica Acta 479 (2): 233-248, 2003.
- Evaluation of non-chromatographic approaches for speciation of extractable As(III) and As(V) in environmental solid samples by FI-HGAAS – In the determination of water-soluble and phosphate-exchangeable As (III) and As(V) in certified reference materials of coal fly ash and sediments by FI-HGAAS, non-chromatographic speciation approaches have been developed. For the screening optimization of the flow injection manifold, a 2IV6-2 fractional factorial design was used. A simple two-stage sequential extraction protocol involving deionized water and a phosphate buffer as extractants was also utilized. Under varied reaction conditions, determination of both oxidation states of As in the extracts could be completed following arsine generation. These included: selective determination of As(III) in citric acid medium or using soft generation conditions; and determination of total As in each extract using thioglycollic acid as reaction medium or after pre-reduction of As(V) to As(III) with a KI+ascorbic acid mixture. Using the difference between the two measurements, the As(V) content was estimated. Reaction conditions were previously optimised, and analytical parameters in each reaction medium were determined. On the whole, the extractable As content was less than 5% in sediment and fly ash CRMs. Two elements were compared in the process, which included liquid chromatography together with atomic flourescence spectrometry with post-column hydride generation.
Source: Carlos Gonzalez, J. et al.; Evaluation of non-chromatographic approaches for speciation of extractable As(III) and As(V) in environmental solid samples by FI-HGAAS; Talanta 59 (3): 525-534, 2003.
- Application of rough sets analysis to identify polluted aquatic sites based on a battery of biomarkers: a comparison with classical methods – In order to analyze contaminated sites that present a threat to the long-term survival of organisms, the evaluation of toxicological effects at the cellular and molecular levels in organisms are often applied. Yet, the integration of multiple measurements on the health status of organisms into a model for site discrimination is difficult. Rough sets (RS) analysis and classification trees (CT) were compared with classical multivariate discriminant analysis (DA). Six biomarkers of effects were used to determine the site classification: metallothionein levels, lipid peroxidation, DNA damage, levels of lipophosphoproteins (i.e., vitellins), phagocytosis activity and haemocyte cell viability on clam (Mya arenaria) populations from the Saguenay River fjord (Quebec, Canada). In comparison to the classification methods from multivariate analysis that are commonly utilized in ecotoxicology, rule based methods have complete independence from data distribution constraints. The study's results revealed that RS and CT had more enhanced classifications than DA, not needing strong distributional assumptions. Furthermore, RS presented classification rules that could distinguish the most important biomarker(s) for site discrimination. In classifying multivariable ecotoxicological data, RS and CT were demonstrated as simple and efficient methods. When freedom from distributional assumptions is needed, this methodology would be particularly useful.
Source: Chevre, N. et al.; Application of rough sets analysis to identify polluted aquatic sites based on a battery of biomarkers: a comparison with classical methods; Chemosphere 51 (1): 13-23, 2003.
- Estimation of PCDD/F distribution and fluxes in the Venice Lagoon, Italy: combining measurement and modelling approaches – To analyze the occurrence of PCDD/Fs in the Venice Lagoon, Italy, available experimental information was compiled and utilized to calculate fugacities for the environmental compartments of sediment, suspended particulate matter (SPM), water and air. This information was then used to estimate fugacity ratios and evaluate the likely net direction of flux between media. Results for the bottom sediment included SPM fugacity ratios for different PCDD/Fs that indicate conditions close to equilibrium, which was suggestive of the close coupling of SPM with re-suspended sediment. Depending on the congener and the location within the lagoon, net flux directions differ, which was shown by sediment/water and the sediment/air fugacity ratios. Net sediment-water-air movement (i.e. re-mobilisation/volatilisation) is recommended for the lighter congeners from the industrial canals, where the highest PCDD/F concentrations in the lagoon happen. As congener molecular weight decreases, the tendency to volatilise increases. In contrast, net deposition (air-water-sediment) seems to happen for the heaviest (hepta- and octa-) substituted PCDD/Fs. OCDF signifies a marker of the industrial district of the lagoon, declining in concentration and as a fraction of total PCDD/Fs with increasing distance. The fugacity-based quantitative water air sediment interaction (QWASI) mass-balance model was applied to the central part of the lagoon. A sensitivity analysis classified the key parameters for the determination of the model output. These included: the sediment active depth, the sediment re-suspension and deposition rates, and the total input of PCDD/Fs to the system. The QWASI model also reveals the tendency for the lighter PCDD/Fs to be discharged from surface sediment to the water column.
Source: Dalla Valle, M. et al.; Estimation of PCDD/F distribution and fluxes in the Venice Lagoon, Italy: combining measurement and modelling approaches; Chemosphere 51 (7): 603-616, 2003.
- Measurement of arsenic species in marine sediments by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry – While maintaining the two redox states of arsenic, extraction of sediments with phosphoric acid and hydroxylamine hydrochloride allowed the measurement of labile arsenic species. Using HPLC-ICP-MS, the forms and concentrations of arsenic species were measured. In order to separate arsenic species, a Hamilton PRP X-100 strong anion exchange column employing an ammonium phosphate buffer was utilized. Recoveries of sediments spiked with As(V) were quantitative. For sediments spiked with As(III), four oxic certified sediments and an anoxic sediment provided recoveries of between 89 and 104%. In applying the method to sediment samples from the marine Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, this process showed that anoxic sediments can contain high concentrations of As(III), and two arsenosugars (sulfonate-ribose and sulfate-ribose). Extraction efficiencies for arsenic varied between 6 and 82%. The type of extraction procedures used determines the arsenic species that are measured in sediments. As(III) and arsenosugar concentrations in sediments that were freeze dried and oxidised were much less than in sediments that were not freeze dried and when exposure to air was kept to a minimum. Accordingly, As(V) concentrations were more likely to increase in samples that were exposed to air.
Source: Ellwood, M. J., and W.A. Maher; Measurement of arsenic species in marine sediments by high-performance liquid chromatography-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry; Analytica Chimica Acta 477 (2): 279-291, 2003.
- Ecotoxicological problems associated with contaminated sites – Contaminated sites present considerable environmental hazards for terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems because they are important sources of pollution and may result in ecotoxicological impacts. Although acute effects occur at severely contaminated sites, the fundamental problem, however, lies in the potential for long-term chronic effects. From the molecular to the ecosystem level, ecotoxicological effects occur at all levels of the biological organization, which may impact the entire ecosystem, in its function and structure, as well as certain organisms. Critical properties, such as toxicity, high environmental persistence, often high mobility prone to contamination of groundwater, and high lipophilicity resulting in bioaccumulation in food webs, are shared in contaminants at large contaminated sites. Contaminants present at polluted sites occur as mixtures, which impacts the interactions between individual compounds. A key factor that is responsible for ecotoxicological impacts of contaminants is bioavailability. The bioavailable fraction produces ecotoxicological effects, which was illustrated with organotin compounds. The most toxic pollutants found to impact aquatic life are organotins. Organotins continue to be used in antifouling paints on large ships, so that widespread contamination of harbor sediments happens globally. In lake sediments, even after a long period, tributyl- and triphenyltin are constant and bioavailable to biota. Organotins bioavailability depends on the pH and organic matter in sediment and content. Remobilization occurs through disturbance and dredging. At contaminated sites, the occurrence and extent of ecotoxicity is of concern and OECD or WET tests are used to evaluate ecotoxicity and risk assessment. These assays, however, are often expensive, laborious, and sometimes not sensitive enough. This study presents the use of rapid and inexpensive in vitro systems, such as fish cell lines for the evaluation of sediments and landfill leachates, which were contaminated by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The results show the application of cytotoxicity as a measure for acute toxicity and the induction of cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) as a biomarker of exposure and impacts, which can be used for hazard and risk assessment. Future research is needed to evaluate the long-term chronic ecotoxicological effects of single compounds and mixtures on soil and aquatic biota at contaminated sites.
Source: Fent, K.; Ecotoxicological problems associated with contaminated sites; Toxicology Letters, In Press, 2003.
- Source apportionment of PAHs in dated sediments from the Black River, Ohio – Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from coke ovens of a U.S. Steel Corporation Plant have contaminated Black River, OH. The PAH levels, however, have been reduced considerably with the closing of a coking plant in 1983 and environmental dredging of the sediments during 1989 and 1990. Using chemical mass balance modeling, this study quantifies the decrease and reflects on source apportionment of PAHs in Black River sediments. In 1998, five vibra cores were collected and dated and examined for 18 PAHs. PAH maxima happened in 1949, 1969, in agreement with regional historical inputs and in 1991 due to remediation. Possible sources include coke oven emissions (CO), highway dust (HWY), and wood burning (WB). Due to the exposure and redistribution of older contaminated sediments during dredging, the CO source total is maximal in 1954 and again in 1992-1994 but decreases afterwards. After closure of the cooking plant, there is minimal CO content in 1985. The HWY contribution (2-86%) is high during 1969-1988, increasing again after 1993. The WB source is less than 23%, revealing a minimum 2% around 1979. In the sediment of phenanthrene (PhA), there is evidence of aerobic biodegradation or photolysis.
Source: Gu, S.H. et al.; Source apportionment of PAHs in dated sediments from the Black River, Ohio; Water Research, In Press, 2003.
- Responses in sediment bioassays used in the Netherlands: can observed toxicity be explained by routinely monitored priority pollutants? – Standard and new methods of bioassays were used to identify the cause of toxicity in sediments and suspended matter in a large group of samples taken at various locations throughout the Netherlands. The standard bioassays used the bacterium Vibrio fisheri, the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus, and the anostracan Thamnocephalus platyurus. Chronic standard bioassays used the water flea Daphnia magna and larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius. Some novel bioassays were also developed for this study. In observations of standard bioassays with sediments from polluted sediments, most toxic effects could be somewhat explained by toxic concentrations of known persistant priority pollutants, mainly heavy metals and occasionally polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. During testing, ammonia toxicity was a confounding factor in some of the samples. In almost all bioassays of suspended solids from the Meuse River at Eijsden, the solids were moderately to highly toxic, which was associated with the combination of heavy metals, PAHs, and ammonia. In two Lake Ijessel locations with no history of persistent pollution, moderate and strong effects were detected in invertebrate tests. These results were thought to be caused by agricultural run-off of pesticides, which are not usually measured in sediments. Some effects on V. fischeri in canals and a small stream could not be explained with standard chemical analysis, but these impacts were interpreted as having association with the outlets of POTWs and industrial effluents. Phtalates, decanes, cosanes, and fragrances were found in some sediment samples that had insignificant effects on V. fisheri, D. magna, and C. riparius.
Source: Lahr, Joost et al.; Responses in sediment bioassays used in the Netherlands: can observed toxicity be explained by routinely monitored priority pollutants?; Water Research, In Press.
- Bioaccumulation and critical body residue of PAHs in the amphipod, Diporeia spp.: additional evidence to support toxicity additivity for PAH mixtures – When exposed as congener mixtures, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are thought to act additively. Recent efforts to establish a sum PAH guidance for sediment-associated PAH toxicity used examinations of additive internal concentrations at the site of toxic action as the basis. This study analyzed the toxicity of numerous PAH congeners (on a body residue basis) in Diporeia spp. These toxicity values were evaluated by looking at the previously established LR50 value for a PAH mixture based on the molar sum of PAH congeners. The study also showed similar LR50 values for individual PAH congeners. These results confirm the argument that the PAHs act at the same molar concentration whether present as individual compounds or in a mixture. Aqueous exposures were run for 28 days; the water was exchanged daily in order to sustain the exposure concentration. Between water exchanges across compounds, the concentration in the exposures declined by an average of 22%, ranging from 11% to 32%. Using time-weighted-average (TWA) and time-variable water concentrations, the toxicokinetics were established. Between these two source functions, the toxicokinetics were not statistically distinct. Toxicity was confirmed for mortality, immobility (failure to swim on prodding), on TWA water concentration, and a body residue basis.
Source: Landrum, Peter et al.; Bioaccumulation and critical body residue of PAHs in the amphipod, Diporeia spp.: additional evidence to support toxicity additivity for PAH mixtures; Chemosphere 51 (6): 481-489, 2003.
- Integrated use of biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzymes activities) in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mullus barbatus in an Italian coastal marine area – Biomarkers are a relatively new monitoring tool used to analyze the biological effects of chemical pollutants in marine organisms. The purpose of this study was the field application of the integrated use of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and antioxidant enzymes (catalase--CAT, glutathione peroxidase--GSH-Pz) for detecting the possible exposure/effect generated by chemical pollutants in native marine organisms from a coastal marine area. An area off the coast of Salento Peninsula (Italy) was studied because it has a coastline of high environmental value and has urban and agricultural land use. Eight sampling stations were chosen, including four not urbanized areas considered "uncontaminated" controls and four areas clearly exposed to anthropogenic impact. The bioindicator species that were studied: a sessile invertebrate (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and a benthic teleost fish (Mullus barbatus). AChE activity in M. galloprovincialis showed significant differences among places; the minimum values monitored were 50% reduced with respect to the maximum found. The leaching of pesticides into the sea from the agricultural lands accounted for the reduction in AChE activity detected in two control stations. Moreover, the reduction of the enzymatic activity seen in an industrialized and harbour area can explain the inhibition of AChE activity by heavy metals besides pesticides. In M. galloprocincialis, AChE activity revealed an important inverse correlation with catalase activity but not with glutathione peroxidase that did not significantly change in animals sampled from the eight stations. Also in M. barbatus, AChE activity showed significant variations among places; it was inversely correlated with liver GSH-Px activity, but not with catalase activity, which did not reveal any considerable variation in animals sampled in the different stations. Therefore, this study concluded that the integrated use of AChE and antioxidant enzymes (catalase or glutathione peroxidase) in M. galloprovincialis and M. barbatus can find a functional application within the framework of marine coastal environment monitoring programs for detecting the possible exposure/impact brought on by chemical pollutants, including pesticides, on living marine organisms.
Source: Lionetto, M.G. et al.; Integrated use of biomarkers (acetylcholinesterase and antioxidant enzymes activities) in Mytilus galloprovincialis and Mullus barbatus in an Italian coastal marine area; Marine Pollution Bulletin 46 (3): 324-330, 2003.
- Sediment toxicity tests using benthic marine microalgae Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehremberg) Lewin and Reimann (Bacillaciophyceae) – Using microalgae, the marine benthic pennate noncolonial diatom (Cylindrotheca closterium), a new process for sediment toxicity testing has been developed. The microalgae displayed good growth rate during the experimental period, even when low enriched media were used. Using microalgal growth inhibition as the endpoint, sediment spiked with heavy metals [cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb)] was applied to establish the EC50 values. Cd, Cu, and Pb, previously spiked on experimental sediment, were separately assayed in toxicity tests. The study also examined the influence of sediment granulometry on the growth of microalgal population. The authors found that the growth of the microalgal population on media containing sediment with a ratio of sand-size:silt size particles of 9:1 did not vary from optimal growth (present in media containing 100% sand-sized sediment). Due to its sensitivity and fast growth even in poorly enriched media, the diatom C. closterium was established as a suitable organism for sediment toxicity tests.
Source: Moreno-Garrido, I. et al.; Sediment toxicity tests using benthic marine microalgae Cylindrotheca closterium (Ehremberg) Lewin and Reimann (Bacillaciophyceae); Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, In Press, 2003.
- Toxicokinetics, toxicity, and lethal body residues of two chlorophenols in the oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, in different sediments – In a set of experiments, bioavailability, toxicokinetics, and toxicity (LC50) of water- and sediment-associated 2,4,5-trichlorophenol (2,4,5-TCP) and pentachlorophenol (PCP) were evaluated in Lumbriculus variegatus (Muller). By measuring the lethal body residues (LBR50), a critical body residue approach was utilized. Freshwater and three different sediments with different sediment organic carbon (SOC) concentrations were applied as exposure media. SOC was varied because the bioavailability of both chlorophenols is reduced by SOC. The uptake rates are also affected by SOC with sediment SOC levels of 6.9%, compared to SOC levels of 0.5%; the uptake rate of 2,4,5-TCP decreased by 81%, and the uptake rate of PCP decreased by 91%. To control the bioavailability, SOC was found to be an important factor; after the carbon normalisation, the variation between the sediments had diminished. The LBR50 values were almost the same in freshwater and sediments, signifying the usefulness of this process for accurate, and more comparable, measurement of toxicity of chemicals with similar modes of toxic action in changing conditions. In conclusion, L. variegatus showed a dose-response sediment avoidance behavior, but the PCP tissue concentrations were not influenced by this behavior.
Source: Nikkila, A. et al.; Toxicokinetics, toxicity, and lethal body residue of two chlorophenols in the oligochaete worm, Lumbriculus variegatus, in different sediments; Chemosphere 51 (1): 35-46, 2003.
Water and sediment toxicity assessment by use of behaviourial responses of medicinal leeches – Behavior is a sensitive indicator of chemically induced stress and pathology in aquatic organisms. Scarcity of leeches limits ecotoxicological investigations on medicinal leeches in natural waters. The authors used artificially bred medicinal leeches (Hirudo medicinalis L.) of two ages: young (1-2 weeks old) and adult leeches (1 year old). Leeches were exposed to water from three sources: (1) waters of Lake Drukshiai, a cooling waterbody for the Ignalina Nuclear Power Plant, (2) Nemunas River sediments, and (3) a solution of heavy metal model mixture (HMMM). The behavioral responses of the leeches were analyzed for the following: mobility (number of moving individuals within certain periods of time), avoidance response (number of individuals escaping the tested water or sediments), changes in body shape (contractions of some muscles, abnormal position of suckers), and feeding activity (longevity of attachment process, interruptions of feeding bouts, size of blood meal). In waters from Lake Drukshiai, mobility of young leeches increased, compared to that of the adult leeches, which showed no variation. In young leeches exposed to water from Lake Drukshiai and in adult animals exposed to all three sources, avoidance response, as well as impaired feeding activity (prolonged attachment process or completely suppressed attachment reflex, decreased size of blood meal), was detected. Avoidance responses were found to be a good indicator of acute toxicity and, therefore, can function as a rapid system for water and sediment pollution assessment. Impaired feeding activity was found after 1-3 week exposure, which may be useful in assessing a chronic toxicity of pollution. In conclusion, medicinal leeches can be used as a test organism in ecotoxicity studies, due to its sensitivity, simplicity of measured indices and ease of laboratory maintenance.
Source: Petrauskiene, L.; Water and sediment toxicity assessment by use of behaviourial responses of medicinal leeches; Environment International 28 (8): 729-736, 2003.
Occurrence of alkylphenol polyethoxylates in the St. Lawrence River and their bioconcentration by mussels (Elliptio complanata) – The authors evaluated the presence of alkylphenol polyethoxylates (APnEO) in the St. Lawrence River and bioconcentration by mussels (Elliptio complanata). Analyses were completed on 4-tert-octylphenol, 4-n-nonylphenol, nonylphenol polyethoxylates, nonylphenol-mono and di-ethoxycarboxylic acids, and octylphenol-mono and di-ethoxycarboxylic acids from surface water, municipal effluents, sediments, and mussels. Mussels (Elliptio complanata) from a reference lake were caged and submerged for 62 days at two sites in the St. Lawrence River, both upstream and downstream of a municipal wastewater treatment plant's outfall. Many of the target chemicals were present in water at parts per trillion (ppt) and parts per billion (ppb) levels. Some of the target chemicals reached parts per million (ppm) levels in sediments and mussels. Those matrices sampled downstream had higher concentrations of contaminants than those matrices sampled at the upstream site, especially in sediments. A small, but not significant, bioconcentration of particular APnEO in the mussels was more obvious at the downstream site than at the upstream site.
Source: Sabik, H. et al.; Occurrence of alkylphenol polyethoxylates in the St. Lawrence River and their bioconcentration by mussels (Elliptio complanata); Chemosphere 51 (5): 349-356, 2003.
- Evaluation of triclosan and biphenylol in marine sediments and urban wastewaters by pressurized liquid extraction and solid phase extraction followed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Aguera, Ana; Amadeo R. Fernandez-Alba; Luis Piedra; Milagros Mezcua; and M. Jose Gomez. Analytica Chimica Acta, In Press, 2003.
- Comparisons of coarse and fine versions of two carbons for reducing the bioavailabilities of sediment-bound hydrophobic organic contaminants. Lebo, J.A.; J.N. Huckins; J.D. Petty; W.L. Cranor; and K.T. Ho. Chemosphere 50 (10): 1309-1317, 2003.
- Harmonisation of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) analyses for ecotoxicological interpretations of southeast Asian environmental media: what's the problem? Martin, Michael; Bruce J. Richardson; and Paul K.S. Lam. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46 (2): 159-170, 2003.
- Asia-Pacific mussel watch: monitoring contamination of persistent organochlorine compounds in coastal waters of Asian countries. Monirith, In; Daisuke Ueno; Shin Takahashi; Haruhiko Nakata; Agus Sudaryanto; Annamalai Subramanian; Subramanian Karuppiah; Ahmad Ismail; Muswerry Muchtar; and Jinshu Zheng. Marine Pollution Bulletin 46 (3): 281-300, 2003.
- Environmental Stability of Chemicals in Sediments Workshop. This workshop occurs April 8-10 in San Diego, CA. For more information, contact Susan Vasich at 313-465-7978 or email@example.com; or look at the website: http://www.smwg.org/.
- Coastal Sediments 2003. This conference occurs May 18-23 in Clearwater Beach, FL. Coastal Sediments '03 is a multi-disciplinary international conference convened for researchers and practitioners to discuss science and engineering issues of coastal sediment processes. Visit the website for more information: http://www.coastalsediments.net/.
- 2nd International Symposium on Contaminated Sediments. This conference is May 26-28 in Quebec City, Canada. Conference is subtitled Characterization, Evaluation, Mitigation/Restoration, Management Strategy, and Performance. For more information, contact Helene Tremblay at 418-656-2193; e-mail: SCS2003@ggl.ulaval.ca or visit the conference website.
- In-Situ Contaminated Sediment Capping Workshop. This workshop is from May 12-14 in Cincinnati, OH. A national workshop to review the science, technology and applications of capping at contaminated sediment sites, examine lessons learned, and discuss future directions. For further information, contact Ana Montes, Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) at 650-855-2165. Web site: www.epri.com/default.asp
and click on Events Calendar.
North American Benthological Society's Annual Meeting. This meeting runs from May 27-31 in Athens, GA. Sessions at the conference will present case studies dealing with ecotoxicology and bioassessment. For more information, contact Anne Yount, College of Agriculture and Environmental Sciences, 204 Lumpkin House, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30624. Website: www.benthos.org/Meeting/nabs2003/programschedule.htm.
- In Situ and On-Site Bioremeditation. This conference happens in Orlando, FL, June 2-5. For more information, contact the Conference Group at 800-783-6338 or 614-424-5461; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; or see the website: http://www.battelle.org/biosymp.
- International Association for Great Lakes Research Global Threats to Large Lakes: Managing in an Environment of Instability and Unpredictability. The conference occurs June 22-26 in Chicago, IL. For more information, contact Marc Tuchman at the EPA’s Great Lakes National Program Office at 312-353-1369 or email at email@example.com.
- Second International Conference on the Remediation of Contaminated Sediments - The Second International Sediment Remediation Conference will be held in September 30th through October 3rd in Venice, Italy. Organizers say the city is an ideal setting for a conference on this topic because of the sediments remediation efforts being exerted there by the local, regional, and national governments. For more information, contact the Conference Group at 800-783-6338 (U.S. and Canada) or 614-488-2030; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org; or visit the Sediment Remediation Conference website.
- Contaminated Soils, Sediments, and Water. The conference is from October 20-23 in Amherst, MA. For more information, contact Denise Leonard at 413-545-1239 or info@UMassSoils.com. Web site: www.umasssoils.com.
- SETAC 24th Annual Meeting: Science Without Borders: Developing Solutions for Global Environmental Challenges. This meeting takes place November 8-13 in Austin, TX. This conference supports efforts scientists and engineers to work together to develop solutions to global problems. Topics including the factors influencing bioavailability and sediment chemistry will be addressed. For more information, contact SETAC North America, 1010 North 12th Avenue, Pensacola, FL 32501. Phone: 850-469-1500; web site: http://setac.org/austin.html.
Websites of Interest
Internation Association for Great Lakes Research Sponsors research studies on the Great Lakes and other large lakes of the world. The site has a searchable database containing many articles on contaminated sediments. http://www.iaglr.org/
The Great Lakes Research Consortium is an organization of sixteen colleges and universities in New York, with nine affiliate campuses in Ontario, dedicated to collaborative research and education on the Great lakes. The consortium has funded several research studies on contaminated sediments in the Great Lakes. http://www.esf.edu/glrc/about.htm
The Housatonic River Restoration This web site provides information on the cleanup of PCBs from the Housatonic River. http://www.restorehousatonic.com/
Environmental Technology Verification The Verification program has researched the claims of companies that have developed new environmental technologies. The Program Graduates section of this web site lists companies who's technology performance claims have been validated. http://www.etvcanada.com/