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Water: Nonpoint Source Success Stories

Arizona Section 319 Success Stories, Vol. III

Begin Page Links Story 1  |  Story 2  |  State Water Quality Site Exit EPA Disclaimer End Page Links
Story Separation Bar
Jim Crosswhite
EC Bar Ranch
Nutrioso, AZ 85932
Primary Sources of Pollution:


channel degradation
Primary NPS Pollutants:

Project Activities:

restoration of the riparian zone

improved grazing management practices

increased irrigation efficiencies

reduced sedimentation

improved wetland habitat

projected increases in ranching economics

Restoration in Nutrioso Creek:
Successful Results Beginning to Show


Nutrioso Creek is located in the Little Colorado River Basin in southern Apache County along the eastern border of Arizona. It is a 27-mile-long tributary to the Little Colorado River. Historical livestock activity caused a loss of riparian vegetation, such as willows, which has resulted in exposed streambanks aggravated by continued large ungulate grazing (cattle and elk). Riparian vegetation is necessary to help stabilize banks, dissipate stream energy, reduce erosion, and naturally filter sediment to reduce turbidity.

Turbidity data were collected throughout the restoration project to determine the project's effectiveness.

Turbidity data were collected throughout the restoration project to determine the project's effectiveness.

Nutrioso Creek was listed as an impaired water for violating the turbidity standard for aquatic and wildlife cold water streams. The entire 27-mile reach of Nutrioso Creek was listed on the state's 303(d) list, requiring the development of a Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL) for the watershed. The TMDL Report, issued in July 2000, focused recommendations on 3 miles of private property and 4 miles of property owned by the U.S. Forest Service. The turbidity impairment in Nutrioso Creek is a result of suspended solids in the form of excessive sediment. The excess sediment comes from the banks of the stream itself, which is incised in some areas because of channel degradation. This downcutting of the channel created a loss in floodplain for the stream, resulting in higher stream velocities during high flows. The higher velocities increased the shear stress/force acting on the streambanks and thus increased erosional forces.

Through the implementation of BMPs, streams in the riparian corridor have been returned to

Through the implementation of BMPs, streams in the riparian corridor have been returned to "proper functioning condition."

A local model of success

Restoration of Nutrioso Creek is occurring as a result of the cooperative efforts of area landowners. One landowner, Jim Crosswhite, has undertaken efforts to implement water quality practices while at the same time improving ranching economics. In 1996 Crosswhite purchased the 275-acre EC Bar Ranch, which included 1½ miles of riparian zone within the 3 miles recently recommended for water quality improvements. During 2000 Crosswhite purchased 115 acres from two neighbors, including another mile of the riparian corridor downstream. He now owns about 390 acres, including 2½ miles of the riparian zone being restored.

Crosswhite has changed range management practices and has been actively seeking grant monies to protect the riparian corridor, help restore the stream, and implement best management practices (BMPs). He has used a combination of 319 funding and grants obtained through the Environmental Quality Incentive Program, Arizona Stewardship Incentive Program, Arizona Water Protection Fund, and Arizona Game and Fish Department. He receives continued technical assistance from the Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS).

In 1997, at Crosswhite's request, the NRCS prepared a Conservation Plan for the EC Bar Ranch. The plan recommended a number of conservation practices designed to restore the riparian zone, improve grazing management of livestock, and increase irrigation efficiencies. In 1998 the riparian corridor was fenced to limit livestock grazing to dormant winter months, restore the wetland habitat, and raise the water table to increase off-channel forage production. A plan has been followed to eradicate rabbitbrush because it causes erosion into the creek and consumes vast quantities of subsoil moisture that could otherwise be used by productive grasses and crops. Improvements are under way to increase the efficiency of an irrigation system using water from Nutrioso Creek. Portions of 20,000 feet of earth irrigation ditches are being replaced with permanent and temporary pipe. Water is stored in a 250,000-gallon tank to supply a 1,500-gallon-per-minute pump to deliver water to traveling gun sprinklers covering 100 acres of upland pastures and 2 miles of the riparian zone. A significant portion of the 100 million gallons previously lost due to seepage and evaporation in earth ditches will now remain in the creek to help reduce turbidity, increase wetland habitat, and improve forage production for dormant season grazing; it can also be applied to upland pastures to help reduce erosion and improve crop production.

Controlled burns were used to slow the spread of rabbitbrush and stimulate the growth of new vegetation.

Controlled burns were used to slow the spread of rabbitbrush and stimulate the growth of new vegetation.

Improvements in water quality and ranching economics

Successful results are already beginning to show. In a study in 1996, the Bureau of Land Management, using the Proper Functioning Condition (PFC) score, rated the 1½ miles of riparian corridor on the EC Bar Ranch as "non-functional" in places and "functional-at-risk with a downward trend" in other places. In 1999, after implementation of some BMPs, the same area was found to be "functional-at-risk with an upward trend." In 2000 one reach was found to be in "proper functioning condition." Turbidity and flow monitoring by the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality over high- and low-water flow events between October 1999 and April 2001 indicated that the level of turbidity has stabilized at 9 NTU, while flows have reached 50 percent above historical high levels. In another vegetative study performed during a severe drought in September 2000, the creek was dry upstream and downstream of the 2 miles located on the EC Bar Ranch where water quality improvement practices had been implemented. This created a stable wetland habitat for the threatened Little Colorado River spinedace and other fish.

Ranching economics are beginning to improve through a combination of conservation practices. A new Livestock Management Plan (LMP) places emphasis on producing forage during the growing season, assessing forage availability in the fall, and then acquiring stockers to be sold in January to March. This LMP will increase gross revenues, reduce year-round feeding expenses, allow wetlands to reach PFC, and permanently reduce turbidity.

Ongoing TMDL Implementation in Nutrioso Creek

Implementation of the Nutrioso Creek TMDL is ongoing, with a 5-year estimated time frame (and a 5- to 20-year time frame to meet turbidity standards). Primary goals of TMDL implementation include

  • Increased education and public awareness.
  • Decreased stream velocities using willows and streambed vegetation, stream grade stabilization structures, and increased floodplains.
  • Decreased sheet flow and wind erosion contributions to the creek with removal of rabbitbrush and increased density of grasses as land cover.
  • Arresting the downcutting of the stream channel to promote stabilization through BMPs, revegetation of the stream channel, and elimination of large ungulate (cattle and elk) grazing. With strong partnerships and the support of area landowners, restoration of Nutrioso Creek is guaranteed.

For more information on the project, go to www.ecbarranch.com. Exit EPA Disclaimer

Begin Page Links Story 1  |  Story 2  |  State Water Quality Site Exit EPA Disclaimer End Page Links
Pete Brawley
P.O. Box 50
Safford, AZ 85546
Primary Sources of Pollution:

erosion from lack of vegetation
Primary NPS Pollutants:

Project Activities:

sediment retention structures

reduction in sediment of 4 tons per acre per year


 Sediment Reduction at Hackberry Ranch:
Reduction of 4 Tons Per Acre Realized


Hackberry Ranch is located east of the Whitlock Mountains 20 miles south of Safford, Arizona. The area is composed of wide and comparatively flat valleys between narrow, rugged mountains that generally run northwest-southeast. Vegetation is primarily desert scrub or desert grassland type. Most of the rain received (about 9.5 inches per year) is from intense thunderstorms in the summer, resulting in heavy runoff into the San Simon River, which discharges sediment into the Gila River. Winter rains are usually gentle, but they can also result in heavy runoff after the soil is saturated. Sampling results from the Arizona Department of Environmental Quality revealed that water quality standards, particularly turbidity standards, were being exceeded in the Gila River.

A solution: sediment retention structures

Through a 319 grant of $65,530, Boy Scouts and Americorps employees installed sediment retention structures on grazing land in the Whitlock Valley watershed, which drains to the Gila River. The structures were installed to trap sediment and slow runoff, thereby allowing the establishment of vegetative growth. Sediment is trapped behind structures to reduce the discharge into the San Simon. Structures were installed on two different range sites—a limey upland with predominately creosote bush cover, and basalt hills with grass over malpai. The structures were constructed of rock and/or brush. They were expected to improve conditions on some 300 acres of grazing land and reduce water erosion by around 95 percent.

Improved vegetative condition and sediment reduction

The project's 540 small sediment reduction structures are reported to have reduced erosion by an estimated 4 tons per acre per year. Photo monitoring also reveals that the sediment retention structures are capturing sediment. Some vegetation (primarily grasses) is beginning to grow in the newly captured sediments. Improved grazing management is increasing the amount of ground cover in the watershed and also reducing sediment. The success of the project will be demonstrated with a video, which will compare pre- and post-project conditions. Educational materials and events such as a slide show, photo monitoring, range transect information, sediment accumulation measurements, a fact sheet, a brochure, and a field day are being developed.


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