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Water: Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments

Table 7-3. Federal, State, and Federal/State Programs for Wetlands Identification, Technical Study, or Management of Wetlands Protection Efforts

1 - New Mexico

Riparian/ Wetland

This Bureau of Land Management (BLM) document identifies planning strategies and needs for future planning for riparian-wetland area resource management in New Mexico. USDOI, BLM, New Mexico State Office. 1990. New Mexico Riparian-Wetland 2000: A Management Strategy. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management.

2 - Washington and Oregon

Riparian

Riparian areas on BLM lands in OR and WA are managed by a combination of land-use allocations and management practices designed to protect and restore their natural functions. The riparian-stream ecosystem is managed as one unit, designated as a Riparian Management Area (RMA). Riparian areas are classified by stream order. Timber harvesting is generally restricted from those riparian areas with the highest nontimber resource values. Mitigation measures are also used to reduce impacts from timber harvesting in riparian areas with minor nontimber values. Oakely, A.L. 1988. Riparian Management Practices of the Bureau of Land Management. In Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry Interactions, pp. 191-196.

3 - Pacific Northwest

Riparian

The Bureau of Indian Affairs has no formal riparian management policy because BIA management must be done in cooperation with the tribe. This situation creates tremendous variation in Indian lands management because the individual management plans must be tailored to the needs of the individual tribe. Bradley, W.P. 1988. Riparian Management Practices on Indian Lands. In Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry Interactions, pp. 201-206.

4 - Washington

Riparian

This article discusses the riparian management policies of the Washington State Dept. of Natural Resources, including design and concerns of Riparian Management Zones. Calhoun, J.M. 1988. Riparian Management Practices of the Department of Natural Resources. In Streamside Management: Riparian Wildlife and Forestry Interactions, pp. 207-211.

5 -

Riparian

The Tennessee Valley Authority, since its inception, has promoted the protection and management of the riparian resources of the Tennessee River drainage basin. Current policies, practices, and major programs providing for protection of the riparian environment are described. Allen, R.T., and R.J. Field. 1985. Riparian Zone Protection by TVA: An Overview of Policies and Programs. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 23-26.

6 -

Riparian

Riparian zones play a major role in water quality management. Water supply considerations and maintenance of streamside zones from the municipal watershed manager's viewpoint are detailed. Management impacts affecting water quality and quantity on forested municipal watersheds are discussed in relation to the structure of the riparian zone. The impacts of management are often integrated in the channel area and in the quality of streamflow. Learning to read early signs of stress here will aid in evaluating how much "management" a watershed can take. Corbet, E.S., and J.A. Lynch. 1985. Management of Streamside Zones on Municipal Watersheds. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 187-190.

7 -

Riparian

Construction of small dams, suppression of woody vegetation in riparian zones, and removal of livestock from streamsides have all led to summer streamflow increase. Potential may exist to manage small valley bottoms for summer flow increase while maintaining or improving habitat, range, and watershed values. Stabler, D.F. 1985. Increasing Summer Flow in Small Streams Through Management of Riparian Areas and Adjacent Vegetation: A Synthesis. InRiparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 206-210.

8 - Queen Creek, Arizona

Riparian

The interrelationships between riparian vegetation development and hydrologic regimes in an ephemeral desert stream were examined at Whitlow Ranch Dam along Queen Creek in Pinal County, Arizona. The data indicate that a flood control structure can have a positive impact on riparian ecosystem development and could be used as a mitigation tool to restore this critically threatened habitat. Only 7 years after dam completion, aerial photos documented a dramatic change in the vegetation. The riparian vegetation consisted of a vigorously expanding Sonoran deciduous forest of Gooding willow and saltcedar occupying an area of approximately 17.7 ha. Szaro, R.C., and L.F. DeBano. 1985. The Effects of Streamflow Modification on the Development of a Riparian Ecosystem. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 211-215.

9 - Southwest

Riparian

Native American and Spanish American farmers of the arid Southwest have managed riparian vegetation adjacent to their agricultural fields for centuries. They have planted, pruned, and encouraged phreatophytic tree species for flood erosion control, soil fertility renewal, buffered field microclimate, and fuel-wood production. These practices benefit wildlife and plant genetic diversity. The benefits and stability of native riparian vegetative mosaics are difficult to assess in monetary or energetic terms, but are nonetheless significant. Nabhan, G.P. 1985. Riparian Vegetation and Indigenous Southwestern Agriculture: Control of Erosion, Pests, and Microclimate. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 232-236.

10 -

Riparian

Many management goals can be developed for riparian habitats. Each goal may dictate different management policies and tactics and result in different impacts on wildlife. Vegetation structure of riparian areas, expressed in terms of habitat layers, can provide a useful framework for developing effective strategies for a variety of management goals because many different land uses can be associated with habitat layers. Well-developed goals are essential both for purposeful habitat management and for monitoring the impacts of different land uses on habitats. Short, H.L. 1985. Management Goals and Habitat Structure. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 232-236.

11 - Maine

Riparian

Riparian zones serve important functions for fisheries and aquatic systems: shading, bank stability, prevention of excess sedimentation, overhanging cover for fish, and energy input from invertebrates and allochtonous material. Impacts from loss of riparian areas are discussed in relation to aquatic ecosystems, and the results of two recent studies in Maine are reviewed. Intact riparian zones have inherent values to aquatic systems and though 23-m intact riparian strips are often recommended for stream protection, wildlife biologists are often recommending wider zones because of their value as animal corridors and winter deer yards. Moring, J.R., G.C. Carman, and D.M. Mullen. 1985. The Value of Riparian Zones for Protecting Aquatic Systems: General Concerns and Recent Studies in Maine. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 315-319.

12 - Siskiyou National Forest

Riparian

The Siskiyou National Forest in Oregon has managed riparian areas along the Pacific coast where high-value conifers stand near streams bearing salmonid fisheries. Riparian areas are managed by setting objectives that allow for limited timber harvest along with stream protection. The annual sale quantity from the forest is reduced by 13% to protect riparian areas and the fishery resource. Typically, timber harvest will remove 40-50% of the standing timber volume within nonfish-bearing riparian areas and 0-10% along streams that support fish. Anderson, M.T. 1985. Riparian Management of Coastal Pacific Ecosystems. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 364-368.

13 - California

Riparian

A riparian reserve has been established on the UC Davis campus. The 80-acre Putah Cr. Reserve offers the opportunity to research issues related to the typically leveed floodways that flow through California's agricultural landscape. With over 90% of the original riparian systems of California completely eliminated, the remaining "altered "systems represent environmental corridors of significant value to conservation. The key to improving the habitat value of these systems is researching floodway management alternatives that use an integrated approach. Dawson, K.J., and G.E. Sutter. 1985. Research Issues in Riparian Landscape Planning. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 408-412.

14 - Pacific Northwest

Riparian

Since 1970 the National Forests in Oregon and Washington have been operating under a Regionally developed streamside management unit (SMU) concept, which is essentially a stream classification system based on the use made of the water with specific water quality objectives established for each of the four classes of streams. Inherent in the concept is the underlying premise that the land immediately adjacent to streams is key to protecting water quality. This land can be managed to protect the riparian values and in most cases still achieve a reasonable return of other resource values. Swank, G.W. 1985. Streamside Management Units in the Pacific Northwest. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 435-438.

15 - Pacific Northwest

Riparian

The USDA Forest Service's concepts of multiple-use and riparian-area-dependent resources were incorporated into a district-level riparian area management policy. Identifying the degree of dependence on forest resource values and uses on specific characteristics of the riparian area is a key to determining which resources are to be emphasized during management. The linkage of riparian areas to the aquatic resource and cumulative processes is integrated into the policy designed to provide consistent direction for on-the-ground management. Vanderhayden, J. 1985. Managing Multiple Resources in Western Cascades Forest Riparian Areas: An Example. In Riparian Ecosystems and Their Management: Reconciling Conflicting Issues. USDA Forest Service GTR RM-120, pp. 448-452.


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