Water: Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments
C. Liquid Material Management Measure
Provide and maintain appropriate storage, transfer, containment, and disposal facilities for liquid material, such as oil, harmful solvents, antifreeze, and paints, and encourage recycling of these materials.
This management measure is intended to be applied by States to marinas where liquid materials used in the maintenance, repair, or operation of boats are stored. Under the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments of 1990, States are subject to a number of requirements as they develop coastal nonpoint source programs in conformity with this measure and will have some flexibility in doing so. The application of management measures by States is described more fully in Coastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program: Program Development and Approval Guidance, published jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
This management measure minimizes entry of potentially harmful liquid materials into marina and surface waters through proper storage and disposal. Marina operators are responsible for the proper storage of liquid materials for sale and for final disposal of liquid wastes, such as waste fuel, used oil, spent solvents, and spent antifreeze. Marina operators should decide how liquid waste material is to be placed in the appropriate containers and disposed of and should inform their patrons.
This measure was selected because marinas have shown the ability to prevent entry of liquid waste into marina and surface waters. Marinas generate a variety of liquid waste through the activities that occur on marina property and at their piers. If adequate disposal facilities are not available, there is a potential for disposal of liquid waste in surface waters or on shore areas where the material can wash into surface waters. Marina patrons and employees are more likely to properly dispose of liquid waste if given adequate opportunity and disposal facilities. The practices on which the measure is based are available. Many coastal States already have mandatory or voluntary programs that satisfy this management measure (Appendix 5A).
As discussed more fully at the beginning of this chapter and in Chapter 1, the following practices are described for illustrative purposes only. State programs need not require implementation of these practices. However, as a practical matter, EPA anticipates that the management measure set forth above generally will be implemented by applying one or more management practices appropriate to the source, location, and climate. The practices set forth below have been found by EPA to be representative of the types of practices that can be applied successfully to achieve the management measure described above.
- a. Build curbs, berms, or other barriers around areas used for the storage of liquid material to contain spills. Store materials in areas impervious to the type of material stored.
To contain spills, curbs or berms should be installed around areas where liquid material is stored. The berms or curbs should be capable of containing 10 percent of the liquid material stored or 110 percent of the largest container, whichever is greater (WADOE, 1991). There should not be drains in the floor. Implementation of this practice will prevent spilled material from directly entering surface waters. The cost of 6-inch cement curbs placed around a cement pad is $10 to $14 per linear foot (Means, 1990). The cost of a temporary spill dike capable of absorbing 50 liters of material (5 inches in diameter and 30 feet long) is approximately $110 (Lab Safety, 1991).
- b. Separate containers for the disposal of waste oil; waste gasoline; used antifreeze; and waste diesel, kerosene, and mineral spirits should be available and clearly labeled.
Waste oil includes waste engine oil, transmission fluid, hydraulic fluid, and gear oil. A filter should be drained before disposal by placing the filter in a funnel over the appropriate waste collection container. The containers should be stored on an impermeable surface and covered in a manner that will prevent rainwater from entering the containers. Containers should be clearly marked to prevent mixing of the materials with other liquids and to assist in their identification and proper disposal. Waste should be removed from the marina site by someone permitted to handle such waste, and receipts should be retained for inspection.
Care should be taken to avoid combining different types of antifreeze. Standard antifreeze (ethylene glycol, usually identifiable by its blue or greenish color) should be recycled. If recycling is not available, propylene-glycol-based anti-freeze should be used because it is less toxic when introduced to the environment. Propylene glycol is often a pinkish hue (Gannon, 1990). Many States, including Maryland, Washington, and Oregon, have developed programs to encourage the proper disposal of used antifreeze.
Fifty-five-gallon closed-head polyethylene or steel drums approved for shipping hazardous and nonhazardous materials are available commercially at a cost of approximately $50 each. Open-head steel drums (approximately $60 each) with self-closing steel drum covers (approximately $90 each) may also be used (Lab Safety, 1991). A package of five labels that may be affixed to drums (10 inches by 10 inches) costs approximately $10.
- c. Direct marina patrons as to the proper disposal of all liquid materials through the use of signs, mailings, and other means.
If individuals within a marina collect, contain, and dispose of their own liquid waste, signs and education programs (see Public Education Management Measure) should direct them to proper recycling and disposal options.