Water: Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments
B1. Management Measure for Facility Wastewater and Runoff from Confined Animal Facility Management (Large Units)
Limit the discharge from the confined animal facility to surface waters by:
- Storing both the facility wastewater and the runoff from confined animal facilities that is caused by storms up to and including a 25-year, 24-hour frequency storm. Storage structures should:
- Have an earthen lining or plastic membrane lining, or
- Be constructed with concrete, or
- Be a storage tank;
- Managing stored runoff and accumulated solids from the facility through an appropriate waste utilization system.
This management measure is intended for application by States to all new facilities regardless of size and to all new or existing confined animal facilities that contain the following number of head or more:
Head Animal Units (2)
Beef Feedlots 300 300
Stables (horses) 200 400
Dairies 70 98
Layers 15,000 150 (3)
Broilers 15,000 150 (3)
Turkeys 13,750 2,475
Swine 200 80
(2) See Animal Unit in Glossary
(3) If facility has a liquid manure system
(4) If facility has continuous overflow watering
except those facilities that are required by Federal regulation 40 CFR 122.23 to apply for and receive discharge permits. That section applies to "concentrated animal feeding operations," which are defined in 40 CFR Part 122, Appendix B. In addition, 40 CFR 122.23(c) provides that the Director of an NPDES discharge permit program may designate any animal feeding operation as a concentrated animal feeding operation (which has the effect of subjecting the operation to the NPDES permit program requirements) upon determining that it is a significant contributor of water pollution. In such cases, upon issuance of a permit, the terms of the permit apply and this management measure ceases to apply.
Under the Coastal Zone Act Reauthorization Amendments, States are subject to a number of requirements as they develop coastal nonpoint programs in conformity with this measure and will have some flexibility in doing so. The application of management measures by States is described more fully inCoastal Nonpoint Pollution Control Program: Program Development and Approval Guidance, published jointly by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
A confined animal facility is a lot or facility (other than an aquatic animal production facility) where the following conditions are met:
- Animals (other than aquatic animals) have been, are, or will be stabled or confined and fed or maintained for a total of 45 days or more in any 12-month period, and
- Crops, vegetation forage growth, or post-harvest residues are not sustained in the normal growing season over any portion of the lot or facility.
Two or more animal facilities under common ownership are considered, for the purposes of these guidelines, to be a single animal facility if they adjoin each other or if they use a common area or system for the disposal of wastes.
Confined animal facilities, as defined above, include areas used to grow or house the animals, areas used for processing and storage of product, manure and runoff storage areas, and silage storage areas.
Facility wastewater and runoff from confined animal facilities are to be controlled under this management measure (Figure 2-7). Runoff includes any precipitation (rain or snow) that comes into contact with any manure, litter, or bedding. Facility wastewater is water discharged in the operation of an animal facility as a result of any or all of the following: animal or poultry watering; washing, cleaning, or flushing pens, barns, manure pits, or other animal facilities; washing or spray cooling of animals; and dust control.
The problems associated with animal facilities result from runoff, facility wastewater, and manure. For additional information regarding problems, see Section I.F.3 of this chapter.
Application of this management measure will greatly reduce the volume of runoff, manure, and facility wastewater reaching a waterbody, thereby improving water quality and the use of the water resource. The measure can be implemented by using practices that divert runoff water from upslope sites and roofs away from the facility, thereby minimizing the amount of water to be stored and managed. Runoff water and facility wastewater should be routed through a settling structure or debris basin to remove solids, and then stored in a pit, pond, or lagoon for application on agricultural land (Figure 2-8). If manure is managed as a liquid, all manure, runoff, and facility wastewater can be stored in the same structure and there is no need for a debris basin.
For new facilities and expansions to existing facilities, consideration should be given to siting the facility:
- Away from surface waters;
- Away from areas with high leaching potential; and
- In areas where adequate land is available to apply animal wastes in accordance with the nutrient management measure.
This management measure does not require manure storage structures or areas, nor does it specify required manure management practices. This management measure does, however, address the management of runoff from manure storage areas. Manure may be stacked in the confined lot or other appropriate area as long as the storage and management of runoff from the confined lot are in accordance with this management measure. If manure is managed as a solid, any drainage from the storage area or structure area or structure should be routed to the runoff storage system.
When applied to agricultural lands, manure, stored runoff water, stored facility wastewater, and accumulated solids from the facility are to be applied in accordance with the nutrient management measure. An appropriate waste utilization system to minimize impacts to surface water and protect ground water may be achieved through implementation of the SCS Waste Utilization practice (633).
It is recognized that implementation of this measure may increase the potential for movement of water and soluble pollutants through the soil profile to the ground water. It is not the intent of this measure to address a surface water problem at the expense of ground water. Facility wastewater and runoff control systems can and should be designed to protect ground water. Ground-water protection will also be provided by minimizing seepage to ground water, if soil conditions require further protection, and by using the nutrient and pesticide management measures to reduce and control the application of nutrients and pesticides.
Seepage to ground water can be minimized by lining the runoff or manure storage structure with an earthen lining or plastic membrane lining, by constructing with concrete, or by constructing a storage tank. This is not difficult to accomplish and should be achieved in the initial design to reduce costs. For some soils and locations, movement of pollutants to the ground water is not a concern, but site evaluations are needed to determine the appropriate action to take to protect the resources at the site.
Operation and Maintenance of This MeasureOperation
Holding ponds and treatment lagoons should be operated such that the design storm volume is available for storage of runoff. Facilities filled to or near capacity should be drawn down as soon as all site conditions permit the safe removal and appropriate use of stored materials. Solids should be removed from solids separation basins as soon as possible following storm events to ensure that needed solids storage volume is available for subsequent storms.
Diversions will need periodic reshaping and should be free of trees and brush growth. Gutters and downspouts should be inspected annually and repaired when needed. Established grades for lot surfaces and conveyance channels are to be maintained at all times.
Channels should be free of trees and brush growth. Cleaning of debris basins, holding ponds, and lagoons will be needed to ensure that design volumes are maintained. Clean water should be excluded from the storage structure unless it is needed for further dilution in a liquid system.
3. Management Measure Selection
This management measure was selected for larger-sized animal production facilities because it can eliminate the pollutants leaving a facility by storing runoff from storms up to and including the 25-year, 24-hour frequency storm. It also uses practices that reduce the amount of water that comes into contact with animal waste materials. It requires that stored runoff and accumulated solids from the facility are managed through an appropriate waste utilization system. Any stored water, accumulated solids, processed dead animals, or manure are to be applied in accordance with the nutrient management measure.
The size limitations that define a large unit are based on EPA's analysis of the economic achievability of the management measure.
4. Effectiveness Information
The effectiveness of management practices to control contaminant losses from confined livestock facilities depends on several factors including:
- The contaminant(s) to be controlled and their likely pathways in surface, subsurface, and ground-water flows;
- The types of practices (section 5) and how these practices control surface, subsurface, and ground-water contaminant pathways; and
- Site-specific variables such as soil type, topography, precipitation characteristics, type of animal housing and waste storage facilities, method of waste collection, handling and disposal, and seasonal variations. The site-specific conditions must be considered in system design, thus having a large effect on practice effectiveness levels.
The gross effectiveness estimates reported in Table 2-9 simply indicate summary literature values. For specific cases, a wide range of effectiveness can be expected depending on the value and interaction of the site-specific variables cited above.
When runoff from storms up to and including the 24-hour, 25-year frequency storm is stored, there will be no release of pollutants from a confined animal facility via the surface runoff route. Rare storms of a greater magnitude or sequential storms of combined greater magnitude may produce runoff, however. Table 2-10 reflects the occurrence of such storms by indicating less than 100 percent control for runoff control systems.
5. Confined Animal Facility Management Practices
As discussed more fully at the beginning of this chapter and in Chapter 1, the following practices are described for illustrative purposes only. State programs need not require implementation of these practices. However, as a practical matter, EPA anticipates that the management measure set forth above generally will be implemented by applying one or more management practices appropriate to the source, location, and climate. The practices set forth below have been found by EPA to be representative of the types of practices that can be applied successfully to achieve the management measure described above.
Combinations of the following practices can be used to satisfy the requirements of this management measure. The U.S. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) practice number and definition are provided for each management practice, where available. Also included in italics are SCS statements describing the effect each practice has on water quality (USDA-SCS, 1988).
- a. Dikes (356): An embankment constructed of earth or other suitable materials to protect land against overflow or to regulate water.
Where dikes are used to prevent water from flowing onto the floodplain, the pollution dispersion effect of the temporary wetlands and backwater are decreased. The sediment, sediment-attached, and soluble materials being transported by the water are carried farther downstream. The final fate of these materials must be investigated on site. Where dikes are used to retain runoff on the floodplain or in wetlands the pollution dispersion effects of these areas may be enhanced. Sediment and related materials may be deposited, and the quality of the water flowing into the stream from this area will be improved.
Dikes are used to prevent wetlands and to form wetlands. The formed areas may be fresh, brackish, or saltwater wetlands. In tidal areas dikes are used to stop saltwater intrusion, and to increase the hydraulic head of fresh water which will force intruded salt water out the aquifer. During construction there is a potential of heavy sediment loadings to the surface waters. When pesticides are used to control the brush on the dikes and fertilizers are used for the establishment and maintenance of vegetation there is the possibility for these materials to be washed into the surface waters.
- b. Diversions (362): A channel constructed across the slope with a supporting ridge on the lower side.
This practice will assist in the stabilization of a watershed, resulting in the reduction of sheet and rill erosion by reducing the length of slope. Sediment may be reduced by the elimination of ephemeral and large gullies. This may reduce the amount of sediment and related pollutants delivered to the surface waters.
- c. Grassed waterway (412): A natural or constructed channel that is shaped or graded to required dimensions and established in suitable vegetation for the stable conveyance of runoff.
This practice may reduce the erosion in a concentrated flow area, such as in a gully or in ephemeral gullies. This may result in the reduction of sediment and substances delivered to receiving waters. Vegetation may act as a filter in removing some of the sediment delivered to the waterway, although this is not the primary function of a grassed waterway.
Any chemicals applied to the waterway in the course of treatment of the adjacent cropland may wash directly into the surface waters in the case where there is a runoff event shortly after spraying.
When used as a stable outlet for another practice, waterways may increase the likelihood of dissolved and suspended pollutants being transported to surface waters when these pollutants are delivered to the waterway.
- d. Heavy use area protection (561): Protecting heavily used areas by establishing vegetative cover, by surfacing with suitable materials, or by installing needed structures.
Protection may result in a general improvement of surface water quality through the reduction of erosion and the resulting sedimentation. Some increase in erosion may occur during and immediately after construction until the disturbed areas are fully stabilized.
Some increase in chemicals in surface water may occur due to the introduction of fertilizers for vegetated areas and oils and chemicals associated with paved areas. Fertilizers and pesticides used during operation and maintenance may be a source of water pollution.
Paved areas installed for livestock use will increase organic, bacteria, and nutrient loading to surface waters. Changes in ground water quality will be minor. Nitrate nitrogen applied as fertilizer in excess of vegetation needs may move with infiltrating waters. The extent of the problem, if any, may depend on the actual amount of water percolating below the root zone.
- e. Lined waterway or outlet (468): A waterway or outlet having an erosion-resistant lining of concrete, stone, or other permanent material.
The lined section extends up the side slopes to a designed depth. The earth above the permanent lining may be vegetated or otherwise protected.
This practice may reduce the erosion in concentrated flow areas resulting in the reduction of sediment and substances delivered to the receiving waters.
When used as a stable outlet for another practice, lined waterways may increase the likelihood of dissolved and suspended substances being transported to surface waters due to high flow velocities.
- f. Roof runoff management (558): A facility for controlling and disposing of runoff water from roofs.
This practice may reduce erosion and the delivery of sediment and related substances to surface waters. It will reduce the volume of water polluted by animal wastes. Loadings of organic waste, nutrients, bacteria, and salts to surface water are prevented from flowing across concentrated waste areas, barnyards, roads and alleys will be reduced. Pollution and erosion will be reduced. Flooding may be prevented and drainage may improve.
- g. Terrace (600): An earthen embankment, a channel, or combination ridge and channel constructed across the slope.
This practice reduces the slope length and the amount of surface runoff which passes over the area downslope from an individual terrace. This may reduce the erosion rate and production of sediment within the terrace interval. Terraces trap sediment and reduce the sediment and associated pollutant content in the runoff water which enhances surface water quality. Terraces may intercept and conduct surface runoff at a nonerosive velocity to stable outlets, thus reducing the occurrence of ephemeral and classic gullies and the resulting sediment. Increases in infiltration can cause a greater amount of soluble nutrients and pesticides to be leached into the soil. Underground outlets may collect highly soluble nutrient and pesticide leachates and convey runoff and conveying it directly to an outlet, terraces may increase the delivery of pollutants to surface waters. Terraces increase the opportunity to leach salts below the root zone in the soil. Terraces may have a detrimental effect on water quality if they concentrate and accelerate delivery of dissolved or suspended nutrient, salt, and pesticide pollutants to surface or ground waters.
- h. Waste storage pond (425): An impoundment made by excavation or earth fill for temporary storage of animal or other agricultural wastes.
This practice reduces the direct delivery of polluted water, which is the runoff from manure stacking areas and feedlots and barnyards, to the surface waters. This practice may reduce the organic, pathogen, and nutrient loading to surface waters. This practice may increase the dissolved pollutant loading to ground water by leakage through the sidewalls and bottom.
- i. Waste storage structure (313): A fabricated structure for temporary storage of animal wastes or other organic agricultural wastes.
This practice may reduce the nutrient, pathogen, and organic loading to the surface waters. This is accomplished by intercepting and storing the polluted runoff from manure stacking areas, barnyards and feedlots. This practice will not eliminate the possibility of contaminating surface and ground water; however, it greatly reduces this possibility.
- j. Waste treatment lagoon (359): An impoundment made by excavation or earth fill for biological treatment of animal or other agricultural wastes.
This practice may reduce polluted surficial runoff and the loading of organics, pathogens, and nutrients into the surface waters. It decreases the nitrogen content of the surface runoff from feedlots by denitrification. Runoff is retained long enough that the solids and insoluble phosphorus settle and form a sludge in the bottom of the lagoon. There may be some seepage through the sidewalls and the bottom of the lagoon. Usually the long-term seepage rate is low enough, so that the concentration of substances transported into the ground water does not reach an unacceptable level.
- k. Application of manure and/or runoff water to agricultural land
Manure and runoff water are applied to agricultural lands and incorporated into the soil in accordance with the management measures for nutrients.
- l. Waste utilization (633): Using agricultural wastes or other wastes on land in an environmentally acceptable manner while maintaining or improving soil and plant resources.
Waste utilization helps reduce the transport of sediment and related pollutants to the surface water. Proper site selection, timing of application and rate of application may reduce the potential for degradation of surface and ground water. This practice may increase microbial action in the surface layers of the soil, causing a reaction which assists in controlling pesticides and other pollutants by keeping them in place in the field.
Mortality and other compost, when applied to agricultural land, will be applied in accordance with the nutrient management measure. The composting facility may be subject to State regulations and will have a written operation and management plan if SCS practice 317 (composting facility) is used.
- m. Composting facility (317): A facility for the biological stabilization of waste organic material.
The purpose is to treat waste organic material biologically by producing a humus-like material that can be recycled as a soil amendment and fertilizer substitute or otherwise utilized in compliance with all laws, rules, and regulations.
- n. Commercial rendering or disposal services
- o. Incineration
- p. Approved burial sites
6. Cost Information
Construction costs for control of runoff and manure from confined animal facilities are provided in Table 2-11 10k. The annual operation and maintenance costs average 4 percent of construction costs for diversions, 3 percent of construction costs for settlement basins, and 5 percent of construction costs for retention ponds (DPRA, 1992). Annual costs for repairs, maintenance, taxes, and insurance are estimated to be 5 percent of investment costs for irrigation systems (DPRA, 1992).