Water: Best Management Practices
Stormwater Phase II Regulatory Requirements
Minimum Measure #1: Public Education and Outreach on Stormwater Impacts
40 CFR 122.34(b)(1)
(1) Public education and outreach on stormwater impacts.
(i) You must implement a public education program to distribute educational materials to the community or conduct equivalent outreach activities about the impacts of stormwater discharges on water bodies and the steps that the public can take to reduce pollutants in stormwater runoff.
(ii) Guidance: You may use stormwater educational materials provided by your State, Tribe, EPA, environmental, public interest or trade organizations, or other MS4s. The public education program should inform individuals and households about the steps they can take to reduce stormwater pollution, such as ensuring proper septic system maintenance, ensuring the proper use and disposal of landscape and garden chemicals including fertilizers and pesticides, protecting and restoring riparian vegetation, and properly disposing of used motor oil or household hazardous wastes. EPA recommends that the program inform individuals and groups how to become involved in local stream and beach restoration activities as well as activities that are coordinated by youth service and conservation corps or other citizen groups. EPA recommends that the public education program be tailored, using a mix of locally appropriate strategies, to target specific audiences and communities. Examples of strategies include distributing brochures or fact sheets, sponsoring speaking engagements before community groups, providing public service announcements, implementing educational programs targeted at school age children, and conducting community-based projects such as storm drain stenciling, and watershed and beach cleanups. In addition, EPA recommends that some of the materials or outreach programs be directed toward targeted groups of commercial, industrial, and institutional entities likely to have significant stormwater impacts. For example, providing information to restaurants on the impact of grease clogging storm drains and to garages on the impact of oil discharges. You are encouraged to tailor your outreach program to address the viewpoints and concerns of all communities, particularly minority and disadvantaged communities, as well as any special concerns relating to children.
Minimum Measure #2: Public Involvement/Participation
40 CFR 122.34(b)(2)
(2) Public involvement/participation.
(i) You must, at a minimum, comply with State, Tribal and local public notice requirements when implementing a public involvement/ participation program.
(ii) Guidance: EPA recommends that the public be included in developing, implementing, and reviewing your stormwater management program and that the public participation process should make efforts to reach out and engage all economic and ethnic groups. Opportunities for members of the public to participate in program development and implementation include serving as citizen representatives on a local stormwater management panel, attending public hearings, working as citizen volunteers to educate other individuals about the program, assisting in program coordination with other pre-existing programs, or participating in volunteer monitoring efforts. (Citizens should obtain approval where necessary for lawful access to monitoring sites.)
Minimum Measure #3: Illicit Discharge Detection and Elimination
40 CFR 122.34(b)(3)
(3) Illicit discharge detection and elimination.
(i) You must develop, implement and enforce a program to detect and eliminate illicit discharges (as defined at Sec. 122.26(b)(2)) into your small MS4.
(ii) You must:
(A) Develop, if not already completed, a storm sewer system map, showing the location of all outfalls and the names and location of all waters of the United States that receive discharges from those outfalls;
(B) To the extent allowable under State, Tribal or local law, effectively prohibit, through ordinance, or other regulatory mechanism, non-stormwater discharges into your storm sewer system and implement appropriate enforcement procedures and actions;
(C) Develop and implement a plan to detect and address non-stormwater discharges, including illegal dumping, to your system; and
(D) Inform public employees, businesses, and the general public of hazards associated with illegal discharges and improper disposal of waste.
(iii) You need address the following categories of non-stormwater discharges or flows (i.e., illicit discharges) only if you identify them as significant contributors of pollutants to your small MS4: water line flushing, landscape irrigation, diverted stream flows, rising ground waters, uncontaminated ground water infiltration (as defined at 40 CFR 35.2005(20)), uncontaminated pumped ground water, discharges from potable water sources, foundation drains, air conditioning condensation, irrigation water, springs, water from crawl space pumps, footing drains, lawn watering, individual residential car washing, flows from riparian habitats and wetlands, dechlorinated swimming pool discharges, and street wash water (discharges or flows from fire fighting activities are excluded from the effective prohibition against non-stormwater and need only be addressed where they are identified as significant sources of pollutants to waters of the United States).
(iv) Guidance: EPA recommends that the plan to detect and address illicit discharges include the following four components: procedures for locating priority areas likely to have illicit discharges; procedures for tracing the source of an illicit discharge; procedures for removing the source of the discharge; and procedures for program evaluation and assessment. EPA recommends visually screening outfalls during dry weather and conducting field tests of selected pollutants as part of the procedures for locating priority areas. Illicit discharge education actions may include storm drain stenciling, a program to promote, publicize, and facilitate public reporting of illicit connections or discharges, and distribution of outreach materials.
Minimum Measure #4: Construction site stormwater runoff control
40 CFR 122.34(b)(4)
(4) Construction site stormwater runoff control.
(i) You must develop, implement, and enforce a program to reduce pollutants in any stormwater runoff to your small MS4 from construction activities that result in a land disturbance of greater than or equal to one acre. Reduction of stormwater discharges from construction activity disturbing less than one acre must be included in your program if that construction activity is part of a larger common plan of development or sale that would disturb one acre or more. If the NPDES permitting authority waives requirements for stormwater discharges associated with small construction activity in accordance with Sec. 122.26(b)(15)(i), you are not required to develop, implement, and/or enforce a program to reduce pollutant discharges from such sites.
(ii) Your program must include the development and implementation of, at a minimum:
(A) An ordinance or other regulatory mechanism to require erosion and sediment controls, as well as sanctions to ensure compliance, to the extent allowable under State, Tribal, or local law;
(B) Requirements for construction site operators to implement appropriate erosion and sediment control best management practices;
(C) Requirements for construction site operators to control waste such as discarded building materials, concrete truck washout, chemicals, litter, and sanitary waste at the construction site that may cause adverse impacts to water quality;
(D) Procedures for site plan review which incorporate consideration of potential water quality impacts;
(E) Procedures for receipt and consideration of information submitted by the public, and
(F) Procedures for site inspection and enforcement of control measures.
(iii) Guidance: Examples of sanctions to ensure compliance include non-monetary penalties, fines, bonding requirements and/or permit denials for non-compliance. EPA recommends that procedures for site plan review include the review of individual pre-construction site plans to ensure consistency with local sediment and erosion control requirements. Procedures for site inspections and enforcement of control measures could include steps to identify priority sites for inspection and enforcement based on the nature of the construction activity, topography, and the characteristics of soils and receiving water quality. You are encouraged to provide appropriate educational and training measures for construction site operators. You may wish to require a stormwater pollution prevention plan for construction sites within your jurisdiction that discharge into your system. See Sec. 122.44(s) (NPDES permitting authorities' option to incorporate qualifying State, Tribal and local erosion and sediment control programs into NPDES permits for stormwater discharges from construction sites). Also see Sec. 122.35(b) (The NPDES permitting authority may recognize that another government entity, including the permitting authority, may be responsible for implementing one or more of the minimum measures on your behalf.)
Minimum Measure #5: Post-Construction Stormwater Management in New Development and Redevelopment
40 CFR 122.34(b)(5)
(5) Post-construction stormwater management in new development and redevelopment.
(i) You must develop, implement, and enforce a program to address stormwater runoff from new development and redevelopment projects that disturb greater than or equal to one acre, including projects less than one acre that are part of a larger common plan of development or sale, that discharge into your small MS4. Your program must ensure that controls are in place that would prevent or minimize water quality impacts.
(ii) You must:
(A) Develop and implement strategies which include a combination of structural and/or non-structural best management practices (BMPs) appropriate for your community;
(B) Use an ordinance or other regulatory mechanism to address post-construction runoff from new development and redevelopment projects to the extent allowable under State, Tribal or local law; and
(C) Ensure adequate long-term operation and maintenance of BMPs.
(iii) Guidance: If water quality impacts are considered from the beginning stages of a project, new development and potentially redevelopment provide more opportunities for water quality protection. EPA recommends that the BMPs chosen: be appropriate for the local community; minimize water quality impacts; and attempt to maintain pre-development runoff conditions. In choosing appropriate BMPs, EPA encourages you to participate in locally-based watershed planning efforts which attempt to involve a diverse group of stakeholders including interested citizens. When developing a program that is consistent with this measure's intent, EPA recommends that you adopt a planning process that identifies the municipality's program goals (e.g., minimize water quality impacts resulting from post-construction runoff from new development and redevelopment), implementation strategies (e.g., adopt a combination of structural and/or non-structural BMPs), operation and maintenance policies and procedures, and enforcement procedures. In developing your program, you should consider assessing existing ordinances, policies, programs and studies that address stormwater runoff quality. In addition to assessing these existing documents and programs, you should provide opportunities to the public to participate in the development of the program. Non-structural BMPs are preventative actions that involve management and source controls such as: policies and ordinances that provide requirements and standards to direct growth to identified areas, protect sensitive areas such as wetlands and riparian areas, maintain and/or increase open space (including a dedicated funding source for open space acquisition), provide buffers along sensitive water bodies, minimize impervious surfaces, and minimize disturbance of soils and vegetation; policies or ordinances that encourage infill development in higher density urban areas, and areas with existing infrastructure; education programs for developers and the public about project designs that minimize water quality impacts; and measures such as minimization of percent impervious area after development and minimization of directly connected impervious areas. Structural BMPs include: storage practices such as wet ponds and extended-detention outlet structures; filtration practices such as grassed swales, sand filters and filter strips; and infiltration practices such as infiltration basins and infiltration trenches. EPA recommends that you ensure the appropriate implementation of the structural BMPs by considering some or all of the following: pre-construction review of BMP designs; inspections during construction to verify BMPs are built as designed; post-construction inspection and maintenance of BMPs; and penalty provisions for the noncompliance with design, construction or operation and maintenance. Stormwater technologies are constantly being improved, and EPA recommends that your requirements be responsive to these changes, developments or improvements in control technologies.
Minimum Measure #6: Pollution Prevention/Good Housekeeping for Municipal Operations
40 CFR 122.34(b)(6)
(6) Pollution prevention/good housekeeping for municipal operations.
(i) You must develop and implement an operation and maintenance program that includes a training component and has the ultimate goal of preventing or reducing pollutant runoff from municipal operations. Using training materials that are available from EPA, your State, Tribe, or other organizations, your program must include employee training to prevent and reduce stormwater pollution from activities such as park and open space maintenance, fleet and building maintenance, new construction and land disturbances, and stormwater system maintenance.
(ii) Guidance: EPA recommends that, at a minimum, you consider the following in developing your program: maintenance activities, maintenance schedules, and long-term inspection procedures for structural and non-structural stormwater controls to reduce floatables and other pollutants discharged from your separate storm sewers; controls for reducing or eliminating the discharge of pollutants from streets, roads, highways, municipal parking lots, maintenance and storage yards, fleet or maintenance shops with outdoor storage areas, salt/sand storage locations and snow disposal areas operated by you, and waste transfer stations; procedures for properly disposing of waste removed from the separate storm sewers and areas listed above (such as dredge spoil, accumulated sediments, floatables, and other debris); and ways to ensure that new flood management projects assess the impacts on water quality and examine existing projects for incorporating additional water quality protection devices or practices. Operation and maintenance should be an integral component of all stormwater management programs. This measure is intended to improve the efficiency of these programs and require new programs where necessary. Properly developed and implemented operation and maintenance programs reduce the risk of water quality problems.