Water: Low Impact Development
Fact Sheet: Reducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies and Practices
This fact sheet provides additional information about EPA's report Reducing Stormwater Costs through Low Impact Development (LID) Strategies and Practices, EPA publication number 841-F-07-006, December 2007.
Stormwater has been identified as a major source of pollution for all waterbody types in the United States, and the impacts of stormwater pollution are not static; they usually increase with land development and urbanization. The addition of impervious surfaces, soil compaction, and tree and vegetation removal result in alterations to the movement of water through the environment. As interception, evapotranspiration, and infiltration are reduced and precipitation is converted to overland flow, these modifications affect not only the characteristics of the developed site but also the watershed in which the development is located.
Low Impact Development (LID) is a stormwater management strategy that seeks to mitigate the impacts of increased runoff and stormwater pollution. LID comprises a set of site design approaches and small-scale stormwater management practices that promote the use of natural systems for infiltration, evapotranspiration, and reuse of rainwater. These practices can effectively remove nutrients, pathogens, and metals from stormwater, and they reduce the volume and intensity of stormwater flows.
This report is an effort to compare the projected or known costs of LID practices with those of conventional development approaches. Traditional approaches to stormwater management typically involve hard infrastructure, such as curbs, gutters, and piping. LID-based designs, in contrast, are designed to use natural drainage features or engineered swales and vegetated contours for runoff conveyance and treatment. In terms of costs, LID techniques can reduce the amount of materials needed for paving roads and driveways and for installing curbs and gutters. Other LID techniques can eliminate or reduce the need for curbs and gutters, thereby reducing infrastructure costs. Also, by infiltrating or evaporating runoff, LID techniques can reduce the size and cost of flood-control structures. Note that in some circumstances LID techniques might result in higher costs because of more expensive plant material, site preparation, soil amendments, underdrains and connections to municipal stormwater systems, as well as increased project management costs. Other considerations include land required to implement a management practice and differences in maintenance requirements. Finally, in some circumstances LID practices can offset the costs associated with regulatory requirements for stormwater control.
Seventeen case studies were evaluated for this report. In general, the case studies demonstrated that LID practices can reduce project costs and improve environmental performance. Although not all the benefits of the projects highlighted in the case studies were monetized, with a few exceptions, LID practices were shown to be both fiscally and environmentally beneficial to communities. In a few case studies, initial project costs were higher than those for conventional designs; in most cases, however, significant savings were realized due to reduced costs for site grading and preparation, stormwater infrastructure, site paving, and landscaping. Total capital cost savings ranged from 15 to 80 percent when LID methods were used, with a few exceptions in which LID project costs were higher than conventional stormwater management costs. (Table 1)
Table 1. Cost Comparisons Between Conventional and LID Approaches
|2nd Avenue SEA Street||$868,803||$651,548||$217,255||25%|
|Bellingham City Hall||$27,600||$5,600||$22,000||80%|
|Bellingham Bloedel Donovan Park||$52,800||$12,800||$40,000||76%|
|Tellabs Corporate Campus||$3,162,160||$2,700,650||$461,510||15%|
a Some of the case study results do not lend themselves to display in the format of this table (Central Park Commercial Redesigns, Crown Street, Poplar Street Apartments, Prairie Crossing, Portland Downspout Disconnection, and Toronto Green Roofs). b Negative values denote increased cost for the LID design over conventional development costs. c Mill Creek costs are reported on a per-lot basis.
In all cases, LID provided other benefits that were not monetized and factored into the project bottom line. These benefits include improved aesthetics, expanded recreational opportunities, increased property values due to the desirability of the lots and their proximity to open space, increased total number of units developed, increased marketing potential, and faster sales. The case studies also provided other environmental benefits such as reduced runoff volumes and pollutant loadings to downstream waters, and reduced incidences of combined sewer overflows.
This report summarizes 17 case studies of developments that include LID practices and concludes that applying LID techniques can reduce project costs and improve environmental performance. In most cases, LID practices were shown to be both fiscally and environmentally beneficial communities. In a few cases, LID project costs were higher than those for conventional stormwater management projects. However, in the vast majority of cases, significant savings were realized due to reduced costs for site grading and preparation, stormwater infrastructure, site paving, and landscaping. Total capital cost savings ranged from 15 to 80 percent when LID methods were used, with a few exceptions in which LID project costs were higher than conventional stormwater management costs.
EPA has identified several additional areas that will require further study. First, in all cases, there were benefits that this study did not monetize and did not factor into the project's bottom line. These benefits include improved aesthetics, expanded recreational opportunities, increased property values due to the desirability of the lots and their proximity to open space, increased total number of units developed, increased marketing potential, and faster sales. Second, more research is also needed to quantify the environmental benefits that can be achieved through the use of LID techniques and the costs that can be avoided. Examples of environmental benefits include reduced runoff volumes and pollutant loadings to downstream waters, and reduced incidences of combined sewer overflows. Finally, more research is needed to monetize the cost reductions that can be achieved through improved environmental performance, reductions in long-term operation and maintenance costs, and/or reductions in the life cycle costs of replacing or rehabilitating infrastructure.
The full report is available for download at www.epa.gov/nps/lid.