[Figure Title] Figure 4-1: Recommended Decision Tree for Evaluating Disposal of Treated Water for Drinking Water Systems
Containment and Disposal of Large Amounts of Contaminated Water: A Support Guide for Water Utilities page 23
[Header 1] Initial response
[Header 2] Identification of Contamination
[Box 1] Contamination confirmed in wastewater or stormwater water system
[Header 1] Remediation/Cleanup
[Header 2] Containment for Treatment
[Decision 1] [Box 2] Contain water in situ (Section 3.1) or [Box 3] Contain water in temporary storage (Section 3.2).
If [Box 2] Contain water in situ (Section 3.1) then [Box 4] Determine treatment (Section 3.3) then [Box 5] Apply treatment (Section 3.3) then [Box 6] Assess water to confirm treatment and determine disposal method (Section 3.3) then [Box 7] Consider direct discharge to surface water (Section 4.1) then [Decision 2] Is an appropriate receiving body of water available (Section 4.1).
If yes to [Decision 2] then [Decision 3] Do the contaminants meet discharge requirements (Section 4.1).
If yes to [Decision 3] then [Box 8] Obtain NPDES permit and discharge to surface water (Section 4.1).
If no to [Decision 2] or no to [Decision 3] then [Box 9] Consider charge through a WWTP (Section 4.2) then [Decision 4] Does water meet requirements to discharge to POTW/FOTW/CWT/private WWTP (Section 4.2).
If yes to [Decision 4] then [Decision 5] Has the facility agreed to accept the water and approve method of discharge (Section 4.2).
If yes to [Decision 5] then [Box 10] Obtain required permits and discharge water to WWTP (Section 4.2).
If no to [Decision 4] or no to [Decision 5] then [Box 11] Consider disposal at a hazardous/medical waste facility (Section 4.3) then [Decision 6] Will hazardous/medical waste facility accept waste (Section 4.3).
If yes to [Decision 6] then [Box 12] Obtain required manifest and transport to hazardous waste facility (Section 4.3).
If no to [Decision 6] then [Decision 7] Has water been treated (Section 3.3).
If yes to [Decision 7] then [Box 13] Consider underground injection (Section 4.4) then [Decision 8] Is appropriate class injection well available (Section 4.4).
If yes to [Decision 8] then [Decision 9] Will injection well accept water.
If yes to [Decision 9] then [Box 14] Obtain required permits and inject underground (Section 4.4).
If no to [Decision 7] or no to [Decision 8] or no to [Decision 9] then [Decision 10] Was the contaminant radiological.
If yes to [Decision 10] then [Box 15] Consider volume reduction and solidification (Section 4.5 Rad only) then [Decision 11] Is volume reduction/solidification feasible (Section 4.5 Rad only).
If yes to [Decision 11] then [Box 16] Solidify waste and refer to solid waste disposal guidance (Section 4.5 Rad only).
If no to [Decision 10] or no to [Decision 11] then [Box 17] Store and continue to pursue disposal (Section 5.1).
If [Box 3] Contain water in temporary storage (Section 3.2) then [Decision 12], On site or off site.
If [Decision 12] on site then [Box 4] Determine treatment (Section 3.3), return above.
If [Decision 12] off site, then [Box 18] Transport off site for treatment and/or disposal (Section 5.0) then [Decision 13] to treat or to dispose.
If [Decision 13] to treat, then [Box 19] Determine treatment (Section 3.3) then [Box 4] Determine treatment (Section 3.3), return above.
If [Decision 13] to dispose, then [Box 9] Consider charge through a WWTP (Section 4.2) or [Box 11] Consider disposal at a hazardous/medical waste facility (Section 4.3), or [Decision 10] Was the contaminant radiological, return above.