[Figure Title] Figure 3-1: Recommended Decision-Making Framework for Containment and Treatment of Contaminated Water for Drinking Water Systems
Containment and Disposal of Large Amounts of Contaminated Water: A Support Guide for Water Utilities page 10
[Header 1] Initial response
[Header 2] Identification of Contamination
[Box 1] Contamination confirmed in drinking water system
[Header 1] Remediation/Cleanup
[Header 2] Containment for Treatment
[Decision 1] Within drinking water distribution system or Before drinking water distribution system
If [Decision 1] is Within drinking water distribution system, then [Box 2] Identify and isolate contaminated water in pipe networks (Section 3.1) then [Box 3] Determine treatment (Section 3.3) then [Decision 2] Can water be treated in situ?
If [Decision 1] is Before drinking water distribution system, then [Decision 3] Can water be contained in situ? If yes to [Decision 3], then [Box 4] Contain contaminated water in situ (Section 3.1) then [Box 5] Determine Treatment (Section 3.3) then [Decision 2] Can water be treated in situ?
If no to [Decision 3], then [Decision 4] Can water be contained in temporary storage on site (Section 3.2). If yes to [Decision 4] then [Box 6] Transfer contaminated water to temporary storage on site (Section 3.2) then [Box 7] Determine treatment (Section 3.3) then [Decision 5] Can water be treated in temporary storage on site (Section 3.2)
If no to [Decision 4] or no to [Decision 5] then [Box 8] Contain to transport off site for treatment and/or disposal (Section 5.2)
If yes to [Decision 2] Can water be treated in situ (Section 3.1) or yes to [Decision 5] Can water be treated in temporary storage on site (Section 3.2)
then [Box 10] Apply treatment (Section 3.3) then Box [11] Sample and evaluate residual contaminat concentration (Section 3.3) then [Decision 7] Has water been treated to clearance goals (Section 3.3).
If no to [Decision 2] Can water be treated in situ (Section 3.1) then [Decision 4] Can water be contained in temporary storage on site (Section 3.2).
From [Box 8], [Decision 6] to treat or to dispose. If to dispose, then [Box 15] Discharge through a WWTP (Section 4.2) or [Box 16] Disposal at a hazardous or medical waste facility (CHEM, BIO, TOX)(Section 4.3) or [Box 17] underground injection (Section 4.4) and Box [18]Volume reduction and solidification (Section 4.5, RAD only).
If [Decision 6] to treat, then Box [9] Determine treatment then Box [10] Apply treatment (Section 3.3) then Box [11] Sample and evaluate residual contaminant concentration (Section 3.3) then [Decision 7] Has water been treated to clearance goals (Section 3.3).
If no to [Decision 7], then Box [9] Determine treatment (Section 3.3).
If yes to [Decision 7], the Box [12] Assess water to determine disposal method (Section 3.3) then [Box 13] Determine disposal method (Section 4.0)
[Header 1] Remediation/Cleanup
[Header 2] Disposal of Water
From [Box 13] Determine method of disposal then [Box 14] Direct discharge to surface water (Section 4.1) or [Box 15] Discharge through a WWTP (Section 4.2) or [Box 16] Disposal at a hazardous or medical waste facility (CHEM, BIO, TOX)(Section 4.3) or [Box 17] underground injection (Section 4.4) and Box [18]Volume reduction and solidification (Section 4.5, RAD only).