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Water: Green Infrastructure

Groundwater Impacts

Groundwater Process
Many green infrastructure practices manage stormwater by allowing it to soak into the ground as it would in a natural setting. This approach has the potential to restore groundwater recharge rates, but also has the potential to introduce pollutants into the subsurface. The reports and articles below examine both the ability of green infrastructure to increase groundwater recharge, and the ability of green infrastructure to treat infiltrated water.

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Appleyard, S. J. 1993. "Impact of Stormwater Infiltration Basins on Groundwater Quality, Perth Metropolitan Region, Western Australia." Environmental Geology, 21 (4): 227-236.

Barraud, S., Gautier A., Bardin J. P., and V. Riou. 1999. "The Impact of Intentional Stormwater Infiltration on Soil and Groundwater." Water Science and Technology, 39 (2): 185-192.

Boving, T., Stolt, M., et al. (2008). "Potential for localized groundwater contamination in a porous pavement parking lot setting in Rhode Island." Environmental Geology, 55(3): 571-582.

Brattebo, B. O., and D. B. Booth. (2003). "Long-Term Stormwater Quantity and Quality Performance of Permeable Pavement Systems." (PDF) (15 pp, 293K, About PDF). Water Research, 37 (18): 4369-4376.

Bruce, B. W., and P. B. McMahon. (1996). "Shallow Ground-Water Quality Beneath a Major Urban Center: Denver, Colorado, USA." Journal of Hydrology, 186 (1-4): 129-151.

Datry, T., Malard, F., and J. Gibert. 2004. "Dynamics of Solutes and Dissolved Oxygen in Shallow Urban Groundwater Below a Stormwater Infiltration Basin." Science of the Total Environment, 329 (1- 3): 215-229.

Davis, A. P., Shokouhian, M., Sharma, H., and C. Minami. 2001. "Laboratory Study of Biological Retention for Urban Stormwater Management." (PDF) (10 pp, 697K, About PDF). Water Environment Research, 73 (1): 5-14.

Davis, A. P., Shokouhian, M., Sharma, H., Minami, C., and D. Winogradoff. 2003. "Water Quality Improvement through Bioretention: Lead, Copper, and Zinc Removal." (PDF) (10 pp, 1.4MB, About PDF). Water Environment Research, 75 (1): 73-82.

Day, G. E., Smith, D. R., and J. Bowers. 1981. "Runoff and Pollution Abatement Characteristics of Concrete Grid Pavements." (PDF) (10 pp, 776K, About PDF). Virginia Water Resources Research Center, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Project A-090-VA VPI-VWRRC-BULL 135 4C.

Dietz, M. E., and J. C. Clausen. 2005. "A Field Evaluation of Rain Garden Flow and Pollutant Treatment." Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 167 (1-4): 123-138. 

Fischer, D., Charles, E. G., and A. L. Baehr. 2003. "Effects of Stormwater Infiltration on Quality of Groundwater Beneath Retention and Detention Basins." Journal of Environmental Engineering, 129 (5): 464-471.

Gilbert, J. K., and J. C. Clausen. 2006. "Stormwater Runoff Quality and Quantity from Asphalt, Paver, and Crushed Stone Driveways in Connecticut." Water Research, 40 (4): 826-832.

Granato, G. E., Church, P. E., and V. J. Stone. 1995. "Mobilization of Major and Trace Constituents of Highway Runoff in Groundwater Potentially Caused by Deicing Chemical Migration ." (PDF) (14 pp, 1.9MB, About PDF). Prepared for the Transportation Research Board. Transportation Research Record 1483. Washington, DC: National Research Council.

Hathhorn, W. E., and D. R. Yonge. 1995. "The Assessment of Groundwater Pollution Potential Resulting from Stormwater Infiltration BMPs." (PDF) (188 pp, 1MB, About PDF). Technical report. Prepared by Washington State Transportation Center (TRAC) for Washington State Transportation Commission. August, 1995.

Hopeck, J. 2007. "Assessment of Stormwater Infiltration Impacts on Groundwater Quality in Southern Maine, and their Relation to Changes in Regulatory Programs." (PDF) (10 pp, 289K, About PDF). Ground Water Protection Council (GWPC) Meeting Proceedings 2007.

Kelly, W. R. 2008. "Long-Term Trends in Chloride Concentrations in Shallow Aquifers Near Chicago." Ground Water, 46 (5): 772-781.

Kunze, A. E., and B. N. Sroka. 2004. "Effects of Highway Deicing Chemicals on Shallow Unconsolidated Aquifers in Ohio - Final Report." Prepared in cooperation with the Ohio Department of Transportation and the United States Department of Transportation, Federal Highway Administration. Scientific Investigations Report 2004-5150. Denver, CO: United States Geological Survey (USGS).

Legret, M., and V. Colandini. 1999. "Effects of a Porous Pavement with Reservoir Structure on Runoff Water: Water Quality and Fate of Heavy Metals." (PDF) (7 pp, 364K, About PDF). Water Science and Technology, 39 (2): 111-117.

Los Angeles and San Gabriel Rivers Watershed Council. (2010). "Water Augmentation Study: Research Strategy and Implementation Report." (PDF) (88 pp, 14MB, About PDF).

Mikkelsen, P., Hafliger, M., Ochs, M., Jacobsen, P., Tjell, J., and M. Boller. 1997. "Pollution of Soil and Groundwater from Infiltration of Highly Contaminated Stormwater – A Case Study." (PDF) (6 pp, 341K, About PDF). Water Science and Technology, 36 (8-9): 325-330.

Perine, A.N., undated. "An Investigation of Potential Ground and Surface Water Contamination from Stormwater Discharge, City of Missoula, MT. Part I: Accumulation of Arsenic and Metals in Storm-Water Injection Well Sediments." (PDF) (17 pp, 633K, About PDF).

Pitt, R., Clark, S., Parmer, K., and R. Field. 1996. "Groundwater Contamination from Stormwater Infiltration". First edition. Chelsea, MI: Ann Arbor Press, Inc.

Thomas, M. A. 2000. "The Effect of Residential Development on Ground-Water Quality near Detroit, Michigan." Journal of the American Water Resources Association, 36 (5): 1023-1038.

Wilson, L. G., Osborn, M. D., Olson, K. L., Maida, S. M., and L. T. Katz. 1990. "The Ground Water Recharge and Pollution Potential of Dry Wells in Pima County, Arizona." Ground Water Monitoring and Remediation, 10 (3): 114-121.


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