Water: Basic Information about Regulated Drinking Water Contaminants
Basic Information about Barium in Drinking Water
Barium at a Glance
Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) = 2 milligrams per Liter (mg/L) or 2 parts per million (ppm)
Maximum Contaminant Level Goal (MCLG) = 2 mg/L or 2 ppm
Some people who drink water containing barium in excess of the MCL over many years could experience an increase in their blood pressure.
Chemical Abstract Service Registry Number
Sources of Contamination
Discharge of drilling wastes; discharge from metal refineries; erosion of natural deposits
EPA regulates barium in drinking water to protect public health. Barium may cause health problems if present in public or private water supplies in amounts greater than the drinking water standard set by EPA.
- What is barium?
- Uses for barium.
- What are barium's health effects?
- What are EPA's drinking water regulations for barium?
- How does barium get into my drinking water?
- How will I know if barium is in my drinking water?
- How will barium be removed from my drinking water?
- How do I learn more about my drinking water?
Uses for barium
It is used in making a wide variety of electronic components, in metal alloys, bleaches, dyes, fireworks, ceramics and glass. In particular, it is used in well drilling operations where it is directly released into the ground.
If you are concerned about barium in a private well, please visit:
What are barium's health effects?
Some people who drink water containing barium well in excess of the maximum contaminant level (MCL) for many years could experience an increase in their blood pressure.
This health effects language is not intended to catalog all possible health effects for barium. Rather, it is intended to inform consumers of some of the possible health effects associated with barium in drinking water when the rule was finalized.
What are EPA's drinking water regulations for barium?
In 1974, Congress passed the Safe Drinking Water Act. This law requires EPA to determine the level of contaminants in drinking water at which no adverse health effects are likely to occur. These non-enforceable health goals, based solely on possible health risks and exposure over a lifetime with an adequate margin of safety, are called maximum contaminant level goals (MCLG). Contaminants are any physical, chemical, biological or radiological substances or matter in water.
The MCLG for barium is 2 mg/L or 2 ppm. EPA has set this level of protection based on the best available science to prevent potential health problems. EPA has set an enforceable regulation for barium, called a maximum contaminant level (MCL), at 2 mg/L or 2 ppm. MCLsare set as close to the health goals as possible, considering cost, benefits and the ability of public water systems to detect and remove contaminants using suitable treatment technologies. In this case, the MCL equals the MCLG, because analytical methods or treatment technology do not pose any limitation.
The Phase IIB Rule, the regulation for barium, became effective in 1993. The Safe Drinking Water Act requires EPA to periodically review the national primary drinking water regulation for each contaminant and revise the regulation, if appropriate. EPA reviewed barium as part of the Six Year Review and determined that the 2 mg/L or 2 ppm MCLG and 2 mg/L or 2 ppm MCL for barium are still protective of human health.
States may set more stringent drinking water MCLGs and MCLsfor barium than EPA.
A federal law called the Emergency Planning and Community Right to Know Act (EPCRA) requires facilities in certain industries, which manufacture, process, or use significant amounts of toxic chemicals, to report annually on their releases of these chemicals. For more information on the uses and releases of chemicals in your state, contact the Community Right-to-Know Hotline: (800) 424-9346.
- EPA's Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) website provides information about the types and amounts of toxic chemicals that are released each year to the air, water, and land.
How will I know if barium is in my drinking water?
When routine monitoring indicates that barium levels are above the MCL, your water supplier must take steps to reduce the amount of barium so that it is below that level. Water suppliers must notify their customers as soon as practical, but no later than 30 days after the system learns of the violation. Additional actions, such as providing alternative drinking water supplies, may be required to prevent serious risks to public health.
If your water comes from a household well, check with your health department or local water systems that use ground water for information on contaminants of concern in your area.How will barium be removed from my drinking water?
The following treatment method(s) have proven to be effective for removing barium to below 2 mg/L or 2 ppm: ion exchange, reverse osmosis, lime softening, and electrodialysis.
How do I learn more about my drinking water?
EPA strongly encourages people to learn more about their drinking water, and to support local efforts to protect the supply of safe drinking water and upgrade the community water system. Your water bill or telephone book's government listings are a good starting point for local information.
Contact your water utility. EPA requires all community water systems to prepare and deliver an annual consumer confidence report (CCR) (sometimes called a water quality report) for their customers by July 1 of each year. If your water provider is not a community water system, or if you have a private water supply, request a copy from a nearby community water system.
- The CCR summarizes information regarding sources used (i.e., rivers, lakes, reservoirs, or aquifers), detected contaminants, compliance and educational information.
- Some water suppliers have posted their annual reports on EPA's website.
Other EPA websites
- Find an answer or ask a question about drinking water contaminants on EPA's Question and Answer website or call EPA's Safe Drinking Water Hotline at (800) 426-4791
- EPA Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) Database for Risk Assessment
- EPA Substance Registry System
Other Federal Departments and Agencies